Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Rampant helper syndrome

06.07.2009
Methane-producing molecule can also repair DNA

The Archaea are single-celled organisms and a domain unto themselves, quite apart from the so called eukaryotes, being bacteria and higher organisms. Many species live under extreme conditions, and carry out unique biochemical processes shared neither with bacteria nor with eukaryotes.

Methanogenic archaeans, for example, can produce methane gas out of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The underlying chemical reaction, a reduction, involves the cofactor known as F0 or F420 which is the tiny molecule deazaflavin. It has previously been found only in methanogenic bacteria, and has accordingly been considered the signature molecule for those species.

A research group working with Professor Thomas Carell, however, has now shown that this cofactor is also common in eukaryotes, where it performs an entirely different function: deazaflavin is involved in DNA repair processes. (PNAS Early Edition online, 1 July 2009)

Catalysts assist in chemical reactions without undergoing any alteration of their own. In the cells of living organisms, proteins perform this important function. They carry out the metabolism fundamental to all living processes. Proteins are instrumental in cellular respiration, they for instance reduce oxygen to water and oxidize food into carbon dioxide. This releases the energy that makes life possible at all. Proteins cannot perform these functions on their own. They depend on small helper molecules.

Such molecules are stored inside special pockets in the proteins and carry out essential metabolic functions. The living organism itself produces many of these helpers. Others – like vitamins – must be obtained from food. Severe vitamin deficiencies are a harsh reminder of how essential these molecules are.

Methanogenic bacteria have quite an exceptional task to accomplish: They have to produce methane. In terms of chemistry, this is no mean feat. Methane production is currently one of the most hotly pursued goals for the purposes of renewable energy. It is also a serious greenhouse gas.

Enzymatic methane production involves the tiny molecule deazaflavin, known as cofactor F0 or cofactor F420. This cofactor is stored inside special proteins of methanogenic bacteria, and is essential for methane biosynthesis. Cofactor F0/F420 is a small molecule that, until now, has only been found in methanogenic bacteria. It is regarded as the signature molecule for such species.

"We have now shown that this picture is not entirely true," Carell says. "This cofactor is significantly more widespread in the biosphere than previously assumed. Most importantly, it also occurs in higher organisms, the so-called eukaryotes. But in these, it performs a completely different task." As the researchers were able to demonstrate, the cofactor is involved in DNA repair processes. Specifically, repair of UV damage to the DNA molecule.

Plants and many other organisms that are exposed to intense sunlight must cope with an enormous degree of damage to their genes. To repair those mutations, they need the help of complex enzymes. These photolyases in turn require cofactor FAD – aka vitamin B2 – to accomplish this function. It has long been suspected that these crucial enzymes require yet another cofactor to provide the energy that DNA repair requires.

"We have now shown that, in many organisms, this cofactor is F0/F420," Carell reports. "This molecule has been conclusively detected in DNA repair enzymes of Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly. Not long ago, another research group even postulated that F0/F420 is co-responsible for DNA repair in plants. Our view of cofactor F420 as a signature molecule for methanogenic species has therefore radically changed: this cofactor is widespread and it is essential for both methane synthesis and for DNA repair."

Professor Thomas Carell is speaker of the "Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CiPSM)" center of excellence which supported this research.

Publication: "The archaeal cofactor F0 is a light-harvesting antenna chromophore in eukaryotes", Andreas F. Glas, Melanie J. Maul, Max Cryle, Thomas R. M. Barends, Sabine Schneider, Emine Kaya, Ilme Schlichting, and Thomas Carell

Contact:
Professor Thomas Carell
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) München
Phone: +49 (0) 89 / 2180 - 77755 or - 77750
E-Mail:Thomas.Carell@cup.uni-muenchen.de
Web: www.carellgroup.de

Prof Thomas Carell | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.carellgroup.de
http://www.uni-muenchen.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds
26.05.2017 | Cornell University

nachricht How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system
26.05.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>