This new research shows that Akt may be the key as to why cancer stem cells are so hard for the body to get rid of. It has been documented that frequent hyperactivation of Akt kinases occurs in many types of human solid tumors and blood malignancies. Prior to this work, Akt was also shown to play a pivotal role in the fate of other types of stem cells, though those cellular mechanisms are still unclear.
“When I came to Penn in 2009, my lab first found that Akt regulates the activity of the protein Oct4,” explains Zhou. Oct4 is one of the four transcriptional factors used to generate induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells. In 2006, Kyoto University researcher and Nobel Prize winner Shinya Yamanaka expressed four proteins – Oct 4 was one of the - in mouse somatic cells to rewind their genetic clocks, converting them into embryonic-like iPS cells.The biochemical experiments outlined in the Molecular Cell paper confirmed that Oct4 interacts directly with Akt and the adding of phosphate molecules to Oct4 by Akt regulates its stability, where it localizes in a cell, and its effect on gene expression. Akt phosphorylating Oct4 has the effect of making Oct4 migrate into the nucleus, where it interacts with other transcription factors and regulates target genes transcription.
Since Akt activation is often deregulated in cancer and Oct4 expression is upregulated in cancer stem cells of various types of cancer, the researchers are studying whether the Akt/Oct4 pathway plays similar roles in other types of cancer stem cells in addition to embryonal carcinoma cells. If true, Akt inhibitor may be developed as a new drug for killing cancer stem cells in cancer therapy.
The Molecular Cell work was been done in collaboration with Binghui Shen and Yingjie Wang from Zejiang University in China.
Penn Medicine is one of the world's leading academic medical centers, dedicated to the related missions of medical education, biomedical research, and excellence in patient care. Penn Medicine consists of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (founded in 1765 as the nation's first medical school) and the University of Pennsylvania Health System, which together form a $4.3 billion enterprise.
The Perelman School of Medicine is currently ranked #2 in U.S. News & World Report's survey of research-oriented medical schools. The School is consistently among the nation's top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, with $479.3 million awarded in the 2011 fiscal year.
The University of Pennsylvania Health System's patient care facilities include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania -- recognized as one of the nation's top "Honor Roll" hospitals by U.S. News & World Report; Penn Presbyterian Medical Center; and Pennsylvania Hospital — the nation's first hospital, founded in 1751. Penn Medicine also includes additional patient care facilities and services throughout the Philadelphia region.
Penn Medicine is committed to improving lives and health through a variety of community-based programs and activities. In fiscal year 2011, Penn Medicine provided $854 million to benefit our community.
Karen Kreeger | EurekAlert!
Aromatic couple makes new chemical bonds
30.06.2015 | Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (ITbM), Nagoya University
Breaking through a double wall with a sledgehammer
29.06.2015 | Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie
New technique combines electron microscopy and synchrotron X-rays to track chemical reactions under real operating conditions
A new technique pioneered at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory reveals atomic-scale changes during catalytic reactions in real...
Think of an object made of iron: An I-beam, a car frame, a nail. Now imagine that half of the iron in that object owes its existence to bacteria living two and a half billion years ago.
Think of an object made of iron: An I-beam, a car frame, a nail. Now imagine that half of the iron in that object owes its existence to bacteria living two and...
A team of scientists including PhD student Friedrich Schuler from the Laboratory of MEMS Applications at the Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK) of...
The three-year clinical trial results of the retinal implant popularly known as the "bionic eye," have proven the long-term efficacy, safety and reliability of...
On June 23, the second Sentinel mission was launched from the space mission launch center in Kourou. A critical component of Aachen is on board. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT and Tesat-Spacecom have jointly developed the know-how for space-qualified laser components. For the Sentinel mission the diode laser pump module of the Laser Communication Terminal LCT was planned and constructed in Aachen in cooperation with the manufacturer of the LCT, Tesat-Spacecom, and the Ferdinand Braun Institute.
After eight years of preparation, in the early morning of June 23 the time had come: in Kourou in French Guiana, the European Space Agency launched the...
25.06.2015 | Event News
16.06.2015 | Event News
11.06.2015 | Event News
30.06.2015 | Physics and Astronomy
30.06.2015 | Physics and Astronomy
30.06.2015 | Materials Sciences