This new research shows that Akt may be the key as to why cancer stem cells are so hard for the body to get rid of. It has been documented that frequent hyperactivation of Akt kinases occurs in many types of human solid tumors and blood malignancies. Prior to this work, Akt was also shown to play a pivotal role in the fate of other types of stem cells, though those cellular mechanisms are still unclear.
“When I came to Penn in 2009, my lab first found that Akt regulates the activity of the protein Oct4,” explains Zhou. Oct4 is one of the four transcriptional factors used to generate induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells. In 2006, Kyoto University researcher and Nobel Prize winner Shinya Yamanaka expressed four proteins – Oct 4 was one of the - in mouse somatic cells to rewind their genetic clocks, converting them into embryonic-like iPS cells.The biochemical experiments outlined in the Molecular Cell paper confirmed that Oct4 interacts directly with Akt and the adding of phosphate molecules to Oct4 by Akt regulates its stability, where it localizes in a cell, and its effect on gene expression. Akt phosphorylating Oct4 has the effect of making Oct4 migrate into the nucleus, where it interacts with other transcription factors and regulates target genes transcription.
Since Akt activation is often deregulated in cancer and Oct4 expression is upregulated in cancer stem cells of various types of cancer, the researchers are studying whether the Akt/Oct4 pathway plays similar roles in other types of cancer stem cells in addition to embryonal carcinoma cells. If true, Akt inhibitor may be developed as a new drug for killing cancer stem cells in cancer therapy.
The Molecular Cell work was been done in collaboration with Binghui Shen and Yingjie Wang from Zejiang University in China.
Penn Medicine is one of the world's leading academic medical centers, dedicated to the related missions of medical education, biomedical research, and excellence in patient care. Penn Medicine consists of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (founded in 1765 as the nation's first medical school) and the University of Pennsylvania Health System, which together form a $4.3 billion enterprise.
The Perelman School of Medicine is currently ranked #2 in U.S. News & World Report's survey of research-oriented medical schools. The School is consistently among the nation's top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, with $479.3 million awarded in the 2011 fiscal year.
The University of Pennsylvania Health System's patient care facilities include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania -- recognized as one of the nation's top "Honor Roll" hospitals by U.S. News & World Report; Penn Presbyterian Medical Center; and Pennsylvania Hospital — the nation's first hospital, founded in 1751. Penn Medicine also includes additional patient care facilities and services throughout the Philadelphia region.
Penn Medicine is committed to improving lives and health through a variety of community-based programs and activities. In fiscal year 2011, Penn Medicine provided $854 million to benefit our community.
Karen Kreeger | EurekAlert!
Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel
The Nagoya Protocol Creates Disadvantages for Many Countries when Applied to Microorganisms
05.12.2016 | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
05.12.2016 | Information Technology
05.12.2016 | Earth Sciences