Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Power struggles are best kept out of the public eye: Audiences influence status after quails fights

05.04.2013
Does the presence of an audience influence the behaviour and the testosterone changes of Japanese quails after a fight?

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen found evidence that both winners and losers exhibit raised testosterone levels after a conflict without an audience. Furthermore, both maintained their social status within their group.


Although the fights are naturally pretty rough, none of the combatants got seriously injured.
Image: Katharina Hirschenhauser


An informed audience determines the future social status of a male after a fight with a dominant male of another social group.
Image: Katharina Hirschenhauser

With an audience, on the other hand, this remained true for winners, but not for losers: they had neither raised testosterone levels nor were they able to maintain their dominant status within the group. Thus, informed audiences determine the future social status of a male, while testosterone plays a secondary role.

Battles for territory and mating partners are widespread in the animal world and are usually fought by males. The sex hormone testosterone thereby plays a crucial role. The concentration of this substance often rises dramatically during a fight. However, the social environment in which the rivals fight their battle can change the context and affect the role of testosterone for maintaining dominance. Experience plays a role, for instance, how often the opponents got involved in a conflict and whether they have met before. Of crucial importance can also be whether the fight is watched by spectators. Audiences can have a decisive effect on the outcome of a contest between humans, too.

With support of the Alexander-von-Humboldt Society, scientists working with Katharina Hirschenhauser from the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen have been studying the influence of mixed-sex audiences on future social status after a fight. They kept quails in social groups each consisting of two males (one dominant and one subordinate) and three females. The scientists observed fights between two dominant male quails in a central arena. The members of the respective social group either were allowed to watch the fight or not. During the fighting phase, which lasted an average of seven minutes, the eventual winners attacked their rivals 29 times on average. Although the fights are naturally pretty rough, none of the combatants got seriously injured.

The winners, without exception, retained their dominant status ("the winner effect"). The losers, on the other hand, were often "beaten up" by the previously subordinate male after returning to their social group and on a long-term lost their dominant status ("the loser effect"). Where there was no audience present, however, even the losers were able to maintain their dominant status.

As expected, testosterone levels were raised after the fight when there was no audience. This happened regardless of whether the quails had won or lost. After a fight in front of an audience, though, the losers had lower testosterone levels. The winners, on the other hand, showed a similar increase to quails that had fought without an audience. In order to determine whether a change in status after losing a fight in front of an audience could be physiologically prevented, the scientists treated the losers immediately after the fight with a testosterone cream on the skin. This treatment seriously influenced the birds' aggressive behaviour: the losers were chasing the subordinate male in the group to a greater extent, which enabled them to remain dominant. This seems to indicate that testosterone is a mediator of the “winner effect” – or at the loser’s side, its lack has an influence on future success.

However, the scientists went a step further: They injected the winners with a testosterone blocker directly after the fight and observed their behaviour in the social group. Although, through the blocker, the testosterone had no effect on these birds temporarily, the winners were still able to maintain their social status. "Apparently, the information about a fight essentially determines the loser’s future status in its group. The “winner effect”, in contrast, is independent of testosterone and audiences," says Katharina Hirschenhauser, lead author of the study. Next, the scientists would like to test the direction of information use, in other words how the combatants behave if they do not see the audiences, but the observers are fully informed about the fight's outcome. (SL)

Contact:

PD Dr. Wolfgang Goymann
Department of Behavioural Neurobiology
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
82319 Seewiesen
Tel.: 08157 932-301
E-mail: goymann@orn.mpg.de

Dr. Katharina Hirschenhauser
E-mail: khirschenhauser@orn.mpg.de

Original publication:

Katharina Hirschenhauser, Manfred Gahr, Wolfgang Goymann
Winning and losing in public: Audiences direct future success in Japanese quail
Hormones and Behavior, in press

Dr. Sabine Spehn | Max-Planck-Institut
Further information:
http://www.orn.mpg.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nanoparticle Exposure Can Awaken Dormant Viruses in the Lungs
16.01.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
13.01.2017 | Princeton University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Satellite-based Laser Measurement Technology against Climate Change

17.01.2017 | Machine Engineering

Studying fundamental particles in materials

17.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Multiregional brain on a chip

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>