Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Power struggles are best kept out of the public eye: Audiences influence status after quails fights

05.04.2013
Does the presence of an audience influence the behaviour and the testosterone changes of Japanese quails after a fight?

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen found evidence that both winners and losers exhibit raised testosterone levels after a conflict without an audience. Furthermore, both maintained their social status within their group.


Although the fights are naturally pretty rough, none of the combatants got seriously injured.
Image: Katharina Hirschenhauser


An informed audience determines the future social status of a male after a fight with a dominant male of another social group.
Image: Katharina Hirschenhauser

With an audience, on the other hand, this remained true for winners, but not for losers: they had neither raised testosterone levels nor were they able to maintain their dominant status within the group. Thus, informed audiences determine the future social status of a male, while testosterone plays a secondary role.

Battles for territory and mating partners are widespread in the animal world and are usually fought by males. The sex hormone testosterone thereby plays a crucial role. The concentration of this substance often rises dramatically during a fight. However, the social environment in which the rivals fight their battle can change the context and affect the role of testosterone for maintaining dominance. Experience plays a role, for instance, how often the opponents got involved in a conflict and whether they have met before. Of crucial importance can also be whether the fight is watched by spectators. Audiences can have a decisive effect on the outcome of a contest between humans, too.

With support of the Alexander-von-Humboldt Society, scientists working with Katharina Hirschenhauser from the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen have been studying the influence of mixed-sex audiences on future social status after a fight. They kept quails in social groups each consisting of two males (one dominant and one subordinate) and three females. The scientists observed fights between two dominant male quails in a central arena. The members of the respective social group either were allowed to watch the fight or not. During the fighting phase, which lasted an average of seven minutes, the eventual winners attacked their rivals 29 times on average. Although the fights are naturally pretty rough, none of the combatants got seriously injured.

The winners, without exception, retained their dominant status ("the winner effect"). The losers, on the other hand, were often "beaten up" by the previously subordinate male after returning to their social group and on a long-term lost their dominant status ("the loser effect"). Where there was no audience present, however, even the losers were able to maintain their dominant status.

As expected, testosterone levels were raised after the fight when there was no audience. This happened regardless of whether the quails had won or lost. After a fight in front of an audience, though, the losers had lower testosterone levels. The winners, on the other hand, showed a similar increase to quails that had fought without an audience. In order to determine whether a change in status after losing a fight in front of an audience could be physiologically prevented, the scientists treated the losers immediately after the fight with a testosterone cream on the skin. This treatment seriously influenced the birds' aggressive behaviour: the losers were chasing the subordinate male in the group to a greater extent, which enabled them to remain dominant. This seems to indicate that testosterone is a mediator of the “winner effect” – or at the loser’s side, its lack has an influence on future success.

However, the scientists went a step further: They injected the winners with a testosterone blocker directly after the fight and observed their behaviour in the social group. Although, through the blocker, the testosterone had no effect on these birds temporarily, the winners were still able to maintain their social status. "Apparently, the information about a fight essentially determines the loser’s future status in its group. The “winner effect”, in contrast, is independent of testosterone and audiences," says Katharina Hirschenhauser, lead author of the study. Next, the scientists would like to test the direction of information use, in other words how the combatants behave if they do not see the audiences, but the observers are fully informed about the fight's outcome. (SL)

Contact:

PD Dr. Wolfgang Goymann
Department of Behavioural Neurobiology
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
82319 Seewiesen
Tel.: 08157 932-301
E-mail: goymann@orn.mpg.de

Dr. Katharina Hirschenhauser
E-mail: khirschenhauser@orn.mpg.de

Original publication:

Katharina Hirschenhauser, Manfred Gahr, Wolfgang Goymann
Winning and losing in public: Audiences direct future success in Japanese quail
Hormones and Behavior, in press

Dr. Sabine Spehn | Max-Planck-Institut
Further information:
http://www.orn.mpg.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon
23.11.2017 | Norwegian University of Science and Technology

nachricht Migrating Cells: Folds in the cell membrane supply material for necessary blebs
23.11.2017 | Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Underwater acoustic localization of marine mammals and vehicles

23.11.2017 | Information Technology

Enhancing the quantum sensing capabilities of diamond

23.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon

23.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>