In the beginning is the fertilized egg cell. Following numerous cell divisions, it then develops into a complex organism with different organs and tissues. The largely unexplained process whereby the cells simply "know" the organs into which they should later develop is an astonishing phenomenon. Scientists from the Center for Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP) of the University of Tübingen and the University of Wageningen, in cooperation with colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, have investigated how this process is controlled. Based on their studies of the thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, they have succeeded in demonstrating how the plant forms its first roots: the root founder cell in the tiny group of cells contained in the seed is activated by a combination of a plant hormone and a transcription factor. These insights could contribute to the breeding of plants with a particularly effective root system in the future. (Nature, advance online publication on March 10, 2010)
In the seed of the thale cress, the embryo forms from the fertilised egg cell that initially divides into two daughter cells. One of these two cells later goes on to form almost the entire embryo, while the other generates connective tissue that anchors the embryo in the endosperm or nutritive tissue. When the embryo has grown into a small cluster of cells, the connective tissue cell that borders the embryo is stimulated by activating signals to become part of the embryo and form the root tissue. The scientists studied these processes in detail under the supervision of Gerd Jürgens and Dolf Weijers and succeeded in identifying several of the players involved in this complex regulatory network.
The formation of the root tissue depends firstly on the accumulation of the plant hormone auxin, which is channelled to the root founder cell by the embryo. This process is reinforced by the transcription factor MONOPTEROS. However, this is not sufficient on its own. The researchers concluded that MONOPTEROS must deliberately activate other genes. In a comprehensive survey of all of the genes activated by MONOPTEROS, they identified two genes that already play a role in embryonic development: TMO5 and TMO7 (TMO = Target of MONOPTEROS). Both of these genes are required for the formation of the root tissue. For this purpose, the protein formed by the TMO7 gene must migrate from the location of its emergence in the embryo to the root founder cell. "With TM07 we have identified a hitherto unknown intercellular signal for root formation in the embryo," says Gerd Jürgens. The detective work in the plant researchers’ genetics laboratory does not end here, however. "Because the transcription factor TM07 is involved in other regulatory network of plant development, there can be no doubt that it holds further insights in store for us," says Jürgens.
Original work:Alexandra Schlereth, Barbara Möller, Weilin Liu, Marika Kientz, Jacky Flipse, Eike H. Rademacher, Markus Schmid, Gerd Jürgens und Dolf Weijers
Nature, advance online publication on March 10th, 2010, doi 10.1038/nature08836
Contact:Prof. Dr. Gerd Jürgens
Barbara Abrell | EurekAlert!
The birth of a new protein
20.10.2017 | University of Arizona
Building New Moss Factories
20.10.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
20.10.2017 | Information Technology
20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research