Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

How plants detect infections

09.06.2010
The tiniest fragments of bacteria are enough to trigger a defense response from plants to parasites. Researchers from the universities of Würzburg and Basel are now able to describe the molecular details of this response.

In the wild, the life of a plant is constantly in jeopardy: unfavorable environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought or pollutants in the atmosphere, soil, and water are a threat. And lurking nearby, always ready to attack, are fungi, bacteria, and viruses.

If these pathogens were left to their own devices, the flora would no longer be so lush, green and magnificent. Plants must therefore have a way of holding their little enemies at bay. How do they do this, incapable as they are of simply running away or grabbing a first-aid kit?

Published in renowned journals

Teams from the universities of Basel and Würzburg have come up with answers to this question. Professor Thomas Boller from Basel and the Würzburg team led by biophysicist Professor Rainer Hedrich and molecular biologist Dr. Dirk Becker have published their findings in the renowned journals The Plant Journal and Journal of Biological Chemistry.

In these journals, the researchers show how plants put potential pathogens in their place using their innate immune system. They researched this phenomenon using bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Pseudomonas bacteria can cause rot in plants, among other harmful effects.

Receptor detects fragments of bacteria

The choice of the Pseudomonas bacterium was far from random – Thomas Boller’s team had already previously achieved a decisive breakthrough: the Basel scientists had identified a receptor (FLS2) in the membrane of plant cells. This detects fragments of bacterial organs of locomotion, so-called flagella, even in miniscule quantities.

“We were at a conference when we agreed to bundle our expertise in biophysics (Würzburg) and biochemistry (Basel),” reports Rainer Hedrich. The researchers’ goal: to shed light on the early processes that plants use to detect pathogens.

Electrical excitation by bacterial fragments

The Würzburg scientists received from Basel a peptide chain of 22 amino acids in length (Flg22) consisting of the flagella building block flagellin along with receptor mutants of Arabidopsis. With this material, they managed to establish that the bacterial peptide excites plant cells electrically: roughly one minute after administering the bacterial fragment to the plants they noticed a rise in the concentration of calcium together with a ten-minute depolarization of the membrane. “Using calcium, the flagellin receptor activates an anion channel in the membrane,” says Dirk Becker.

Plant distributes antibacterial substances

At the same time, the Basel researchers demonstrated that the excitation of the membrane is communicated to the cell nucleus and stimulates the immune system: the plant activates defense genes, assembles antimicrobial substances and enzymes, and with these overwhelms the bacterial intruders.

To prevent the microbes from spreading, whole groups of cells surround the source of the infection and sacrifice themselves as a kind of last resort. Brown patches and microscopically small “scars” remain as witnesses to the successful defense against the pathogens.

Hundreds of early warning systems to counter intruders

But what if the plant overlooks the flagellin, which is found in many bacteria? That’s no major problem! “The plant identifies intruders using a variety of receptors simultaneously – it takes a typical fingerprint of the respective pathogens,” says Thomas Boller.

The innate immune system of plants consists of hundreds of such early warning systems. These include those of the PEPR1/2 type, which detect endogenous peptides from inside the cell. As soon as microbes damage a plant cell, these peptides reach the surface receptors of surrounding cells and signal the danger.

Anion channel passes the danger signals on

Based on their research, the German/Swiss research alliance has drawn the following conclusion: the different danger signals detected by these receptors are translated into an electrical signal via the same anion channel.

Hedrich: “We are currently working on tracking down the gene for this central ion channel. We have found two gene families that encode anion channels. The task now is to nail the prime suspect.”

"Early signaling through the Arabidopsis pattern recognition receptors FLS2 and EFR involves Ca2+-associated opening of plasma membrane anion channels”, Elena Jeworutzki, M. Rob G. Roelfsema, Uta Anschütz, Elzbieta Krol, J. Theo M. Elzenga, Georg Felix , Thomas Boller , Rainer Hedrich, and Dirk Becker, Plant Journal 2010, Volume 62 Issue 3, Pages 367 – 378 (Published Online), DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04155.x

"Perception of the Arabidopsis Danger Signal Peptide 1 Involves the Pattern Recognition Receptor AtPEPR1 and Its Close Homologue AtPEPR2”, Elzbieta Krol, Tobias Mentzel, Delphine Chinchilla, Thomas Boller, Georg Felix, Birgit Kemmerling, Sandra Postel, Michael Arents, Elena Jeworutzki, Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid, Dirk Becker, and Rainer Hedrich, J. Biol. Chem. 2010 285: 13471-13479. First Published on March 3, 2010. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.097394

Contact

Prof. Dr. Rainer Hedrich, University of Würzburg, T +49 (931) 31-86100, hedrich@botanik.uni-wuerzburg.de

Prof. Dr. Thomas Boller, University of Basel, T +41 (61) 267 23 20, Thomas.Boller@unibas.ch

Robert Emmerich | idw
Further information:
http://www.unibas.ch
http://www.uni-wuerzburg.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht At last, butterflies get a bigger, better evolutionary tree
16.02.2018 | Florida Museum of Natural History

nachricht New treatment strategies for chronic kidney disease from the animal kingdom
16.02.2018 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

Im Focus: Autonomous 3D scanner supports individual manufacturing processes

Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).

Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fingerprints of quantum entanglement

16.02.2018 | Information Technology

'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers

16.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Hubble sees Neptune's mysterious shrinking storm

16.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>