Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Plant flowering time now predictable

23.10.2015

Plants adapt their flowering time to the temperature in their surroundings. But what exactly triggers their flowering at the molecular level? Can this factor switch flowering on or off and thus respond to changes in the climate? In a study currently published in PLOS Genetics, a team headed by Professor Claus Schwechheimer from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a molecular mechanism with which plants adapt their flowering time to ambient temperatures and thereby indicate ways in which the flowering time can be predicted on the basis of genetic information.

Plants adapt their flowering time to the temperature in their surroundings. To flower at the optimal time, they take factors like temperature, day length and temperature fluctuations into account. Although the mechanisms that cause flowering before and after winter are largely known by now, relatively little is known about how plants delay their flowering time during a cold spring.


The scientists discovered a molecular mechanism that causes Scottish thale cress to flower two weeks earlier than its counterparts in warmer regions.

(Foto: U. Lutz/ TUM)

Such processes are very important, particularly in regard of global warming with relatively small fluctuations in temperature, as the correct flowering time guarantees optimum arable yields for farmers – and also ensures that the thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana prevails in the everyday evolutionary struggle for survival.

Crucial gene for early flowerers

In the current edition of the journal PLOS Genetics, the team, headed by Professor Claus Schwechheimer from TU Munich in close cooperation with colleagues from the German Research Center for Environmental Health (Helmholtz Zentrum Neuherberg) and the Max Planck Institute in Tübingen, describe the molecular mechanism with which the thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana adapts its flowering time to the ambient temperature.

Interestingly, the first indication of the existence of this natural gene variation came from the cool latitudes of Scotland. This led the scientists to discover a molecular mechanism that causes Scottish thale cress to flower two weeks earlier than its counterparts in warmer regions. Due to the insertion of a so-called jumping gene (transposon), the formation of the crucial flowering gene was so minimal that the function of the flowering repressor no longer had any effect.

And that’s not all: Ulrich Lutz, first author of the study, was also able to show that this gene mutation has already become established in several other variants of the thale cress and controls flowering behavior in them. The researchers were even able to trace their steps here and predict the flowering behavior of the thale cress based on the presence of the jumping gene (transposon) with a high degree of accuracy. Already in the near future, it should be possible to transfer this knowledge to the flowering behavior of crop plants like rapeseed.

Research helps estimate the ecological consequences of climate change

“Our research will help to enable the estimation of the ecological consequences of climate change,” says Professor Schwechheimer. “Climate change will bring about a change in the flowering behavior of many plants. We researchers must gain a better understanding of the impacts of this temperature change on the world of plants and the organisms that depend on them.”

Plants react to the experience of a long cold winter and to extended cold periods in spring by delaying their flowering time. The molecular mechanisms with which plants perceive these cold periods differ, however. In the case of winter cereals, like winter wheat, the seed can germinate in autumn but the plant does not flower, as it needs the experience of winter to act as a wake-up call indicating that the correct time for flowering has come.

Findings can help food production

The genes that regulate this process are already known in many plants. In spring wheat, for example, they have been modified by conventional breeding that the plant flowers even if it is planted in spring. The temperatures in a cool or warm spring also affect flowering behavior; however, very little is known about this. Given that small changes of just a few degrees Celsius can have a negative impact on agricultural production, it is important to understand these processes.

The findings of the research team from the TUM Chair of Plant Systems Biology could help with the prediction and even modification of plant flowering time in the future. Such insights are also important for plant breeding to ensure that food production can be guaranteed in the long term in the context of progressive global warming.

Publication:
Ulrich Lutz, David Posé, Matthias Pfeifer, Heidrun Gundlach, Jörg Hagmann, Congmao Wang, Detlef Weigel, Klaus F. X. Mayer, Markus Schmid, Claus Schwechheimer: Modulation of Ambient Temperature-Dependent Flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana by Natural Variation of FLOWERING LOCUS M, PLOS Genetics October 22, 2015. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005588

Contact:
Prof. Dr. Claus Schwechheimer
Technical University of Munich (TUM)
Department of Plant Systems Biology
Tel: +49/(0)8161/71 2880
E-Mail: claus.schwechheimer@wzw.tum.de
http://www.sysbiol.wzw.tum.de/

Ulrich Lutz
Technical University of Munich (TUM)
Department of Plant Systems Biology
Tel: +49/(0)8161/71 2879
E-Mail: ulrich.lutz@wzw.tum.de
http://www.sysbiol.wzw.tum.de/

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/short/article/32705/

Dr. Ulrich Marsch | Technische Universität München

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed
18.01.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht 127 at one blow...
18.01.2017 | Stiftung Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>