Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have coaxed gold into nanowires as a way of creating an inexpensive material for detecting poisonous gases found in natural gas.
Along with colleagues at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Alexander Star, associate professor of chemistry in Pitt's Kenneth P. Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences and principal investigator of the research project, developed a self-assembly method that uses scaffolds (a structure used to hold up or support another material) to grow gold nanowires. Their findings, titled "Welding of Gold Nanoparticles on Graphitic Templates for Chemical Sensing," were published online Jan. 22 in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
"The most common methods to sense gases require bulky and expensive equipment," says Star. "Chip-based sensors that rely on nanomaterials for detection would be less expensive and more portable as workers could wear them to monitor poisonous gases, such as hydrogen sulfide."
Star and his research team determined gold nanomaterials would be ideal for detecting hydrogen sulfide owing to gold's high affinity for sulfur and unique physical properties of nanomaterials. They experimented with carbon nanotubes and graphene—an atomic-scale chicken wire made of carbon atoms—and used computer modeling, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy to study the self-assembly process. They also tested the resulting materials' responses to hydrogen sulfide.
"To produce the gold nanowires, we suspended nanotubes in water with gold-containing chloroauric acid," says Star. "As we stirred and heated the mixture, the gold reduced and formed nanoparticles on the outer walls of the tubes. The result was a highly conductive jumble of gold nanowires and carbon nanotubes."
To test the nanowires' ability to detect hydrogen sulfide, Star and his colleagues cast a film of the composite material onto a chip patterned with gold electrodes. The team could detect gas at levels as low as 5ppb (parts per billion)—a detection level comparable to that of existing sensing techniques. Additionally, they could detect the hydrogen sulfide in complex mixtures of gases simulating natural gas. Star says the group will now test the chips' detection limits using real samples from gas wells.
Also involved in the study were Dan Sorescu, research physicist at NETL, who performed computational modeling of the gold nanowire formation; Mengning Ding, a Pitt graduate student in chemistry, who performed experimental work and synthesized and characterized gold nanowires and measured their sensor response; and Gregg Kotchey, a fellow Pitt graduate student in chemistry, who synthesized some of the graphene templates used in this study.
Funding for this work was provided by NETL in support of ongoing research in sensor systems and diagnostics.
B. Rose Huber | EurekAlert!
Fine organic particles in the atmosphere are more often solid glass beads than liquid oil droplets
21.04.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie
Study overturns seminal research about the developing nervous system
21.04.2017 | University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment...
Glaciers might seem rather inhospitable environments. However, they are home to a diverse and vibrant microbial community. It’s becoming increasingly clear that they play a bigger role in the carbon cycle than previously thought.
A new study, now published in the journal Nature Geoscience, shows how microbial communities in melting glaciers contribute to the Earth’s carbon cycle, a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.04.2017 | Health and Medicine
21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy