This propulsion is the same movement that tumor cells use to invade healthy tissue during cancer metastasis so cracking the code to this signaling network may lead to new therapeutic strategies against cancer and other devastating diseases.
Many different types of cells in our body can crawl and migrate to distinct locations, sometimes over long distances. Immune system cells, for example, move to a wound site to kill microorganisms during an infection, and connective tissue cells (fibroblasts) move there to repair damaged areas. Cell migration is essential to a variety of biological processes, such as the development of an organism, wound healing, and immune surveillance, but also the invasion of tumor cells during cancer metastasis.
Cell migration is an extraordinarily complex process which depends on the ability of a cell to form a front and a back (called polarization) and generate force in one preferred direction. Migrating cells are able to do this spontaneously, without assistance from the environment. How they do this is a question that has kept cell biologists busy for the last three decades.
These latest results shed light on the migratory mechanism of cells. In particular, the team found that the signaling network involved has an interesting property, well known to engineers and bankers: it is self-perpetuating. A classic analogy to this type of circuit is a bank run, which occurs when a large number of customers withdraw their money from a bank due to concerns about the bank's solvency. As more people withdraw their funds, the probability of default increases, prompting more people to withdraw their money, in a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy (or positive feedback loop).
The team went on to show that this positive feedback circuit is switched on in very specific regions in the connective tissue cells, causing proteins to push against only one side of the outer envelope of the cell, eventually causing movement in one preferred direction. Predictably, two important protein components of this signaling circuit, called Ras and PI3K, are often mutated in cancer. This suggests that misregulation of this circuit may increase the invasiveness of cancer cells. It also highlights the need to understand how signaling proteins interact with each other inside cells, hopefully leading one day to new therapies for cancer and other deadly diseases.
This study, entitled "The small GTPase HRas shapes local PI3K signals through positive feedback and regulates persistent membrane extension in migrating fibroblasts" was published online in Molecular Biology of the Cell on May 15. It is supported by a grant from the Ministry of Education.
Catherine Kolf | EurekAlert!
Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery
20.01.2017 | GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Seeking structure with metagenome sequences
20.01.2017 | DOE/Joint Genome Institute
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
20.01.2017 | Awards Funding
20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.01.2017 | Life Sciences