Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Penn bioengineers create simulator to test blood platelets in virtual heart attacks

21.06.2010
A team of bioengineers from the University of Pennsylvania Institute for Medicine and Engineering have trained a computer neural network model to accurately predict how blood platelets would respond to complex conditions found during a heart attack or stroke.

Using an automated, robotic system, they exposed human blood platelets to hundreds of different combinations of biological stimuli like those experienced during a heart attack. This was done by fingerprinting each platelet sample with 34,000 data points obtained in response to all possible pairs of stimuli.

The team applied the system to predict intracellular calcium signaling responses of human platelets to any combination of up to six different agonists used at different dosages and even applied at different times. The model predicted platelet responses accurately, even distinguishing between 10 blood donors, demonstrating an efficient approach for predicting complex chemical responses in a patient-specific disease milieu.

The strategy involves selecting molecules that react with blood platelets under high-risk situations, such as a heart attack, measuring the cellular responses to all pairwise combinations of stimuli in a high-throughput manner and then training a two-layer, nonlinear, neural network with the measured cellular responses. For platelets, it was discovered that the complexity of integrating numerous signals can be built up from the responses to simpler conditions involving only two stimuli.

"With patient-specific computer models, it is now possible to predict how an individual's platelets would respond to thousands of 'in silico' heart-attack scenarios," said Scott L. Diamond, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and the director of the Penn Center for Molecular Discovery. "With this information we can identify patients at risk of thrombosis or improve upon current forms of anti-platelet therapies."

The research team developed its experimental/computational technique, called Pairwise Agonist Scanning, or PAS, to define platelet response to combinations of agonists, chemicals that bind in this case to platelet cells, initiating a cellular response. Future research would include the application of PAS to clinical stimuli that platelets encounter such as epinephrine, serotonin and nitric oxide, which would map a major portion of the entire platelet response. The use of PAS with certain pharmacological agents would allow further assessment of individual clinical risk, or sensitivity to therapy.

Platelet cells respond in a patient-specific manner to multiple signals, and their reaction to thrombotic signals is central to the 1.74 million heart attacks and strokes, 1.115 million angiograms and 0.652 million stent placements in the United States each year. For Diamond, platelets are also ideal cellular systems for quantifying the effects of multiple signaling pathways because they are anucleate, easily obtained from donors and amenable to automated liquid handling. Few experimental or computational tools are available for building a global understanding of how the platelet integrates multiple stimuli present at varying levels.

Researchers working in systems biology seek to understand blood as a reactive biological fluid whose function changes through a variety of physical and chemical stimuli such as hemodynamics, vessel-wall characteristics, platelet metabolism, numerous coagulation factors in plasma and small molecules released during thrombosis.

Because platelet cells respond to numerous signals and chemical doses and integrate their responses to these stimuli, efficient and speedy computational methods are needed to survey such high-dimensional systems. Evaluating the cellular response to merely pairs of stimuli offers a direct and rapid sampling of the cellular response, which can be built up to predict even more complex situations and may eventually lead to a predictive clinical tool for cardiovascular disease.

The study, published in the current issue of Nature Biotechnology and supported by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted by Diamond and Manash S. Chatterjee of the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Jeremy E. Purvis of the Department of Genomics and Computational Biology and Lawrence F. Brass of the Department of Medicine at Penn.

All are members of the Institute for Medicine and Engineering at Penn.

Jordan Reese | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.upenn.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Water world
20.11.2017 | Washington University in St. Louis

nachricht Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity
20.11.2017 | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity

20.11.2017 | Life Sciences

SYSTEMS INTEGRATION 2018 in Switzerland focuses on building blocks for industrial digitalization

20.11.2017 | Trade Fair News

Heavy nitrogen molecules reveal planetary-scale tug-of-war

20.11.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>