Scientists of the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried have now shown that growing nerve cells realise when they've reached their target area in the fly brain thanks to the interaction of two genes. Similar mechanisms are also likely to play a role during the development of the vertebrate brain and could thus be important for a better understanding of certain developmental disorders.
The photoreceptor nerve cells (green) of the fly\'s compound eye send their axons to the brain\'s optic ganglia. Scientists have now discovered that the axons are able to recognize their target area in the brain thanks to the interaction of two genes. Credit: Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology / Suzuki
The nervous system is incredibly complex. Millions and even many billion nerve cells are created during development. Each of these cells sets up connections to their neighbouring cells and then sends out a long connecting cable, the axon, to a different brain region. Once the axon has reached its target area it connects itself with the local nerve cells. In this way a processing chain is established which allows us, for example, to see a cup, recognize it as such, reach out and take hold of it. Had there been a misconnection between the nerve cells somewhere along the way between the eyes and the hand, it would be impossible to reach the coffee in the cup.It is thus essential for nerve cells to connect to the correct partner cells. Based on this fact, scientists of the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried and colleagues from Kyoto investigated how an axon knows where it should stop growing and start setting up connections with surrounding cells. For their investigation, the neurobiologists analyzed the function of genes that play a role in the development of the visual system of the fruit fly.
"We assume that very similar mechanisms play a role also in other organisms – including humans", explains Takashi Suzuki, lead author of the study. "We are now a good way into understanding how to manipulate the cells in such a way that they are certain to reach their target area." This knowledge would be an important foundation for eventual therapies of developmental disorders based upon a misguided growth of nerve cells. The knowledge may also help in the guidance of regenerating nerve cells back to their old connection sites.
Hakeda-Suzuki S*, Berger-Mueller S*, Tomasi T, Usui T, Horiuchi S, Uemura T, Suzuki T (*equal contribution)
Golden Goal Collaborates with Flamingo in Conferring Synaptic-Layer Specificity in the Visual System Nature Neuroscience,February 14 2011
Stefanie Merker | EurekAlert!
'Y' a protein unicorn might matter in glaucoma
23.10.2017 | Georgia Institute of Technology
Microfluidics probe 'cholesterol' of the oil industry
23.10.2017 | Rice University
Salmonellae are dangerous pathogens that enter the body via contaminated food and can cause severe infections. But these bacteria are also known to target...
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
23.10.2017 | Event News
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
23.10.2017 | Life Sciences
23.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
23.10.2017 | Health and Medicine