Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Over-organizing repair cells set the stage for fibrosis

20.10.2014

The excessive activity of repair cells in the early stages of tissue recovery sets the stage for fibrosis by priming the activation of an important growth factor, according to a study in The Journal of Cell Biology.

Myofibroblasts are highly contractile cells that repair damaged tissues by replacing and reorganizing the extracellular matrix (ECM), the meshwork that fills the space around cells, in order to draw a wound closed.


Compared with a control skin wound (left), the ECM within a wound containing increased numbers of myofibroblasts (right) is more consistently organized into linear fibers, which increases the activation and release of a growth factor that promotes fibrosis.

Credit: Klingberg et al., 2014

When myofibroblasts are not properly regulated, however, they continue to act on healed tissues and produce excessive amounts of ECM. Excessive ECM production is involved in conditions such as fibrosis, the development of damaging scar tissue in organs.

Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a key signaling molecule within the ECM that promotes tissue fibrosis. Boris Hinz and colleagues previously found that myofibroblasts pull on inactive TGF-β1 complexes to release the active form of the signaling molecule from the ECM.

The University of Toronto researchers then wanted to find out whether the structural changes that myofibroblasts make in the ECM during wound healing might also make it easier for the ECM to release activated growth factor later in the process.

The researchers found that wounds containing increased numbers of myofibroblasts exhibited much higher levels of ECM organization, with components arranged into long, thin fibers. Hinz and colleagues then devised a series of experiments to test how this highly organized ECM configuration affects TGF-β1 activation.

They found that higher levels of organization and tension in the ECM always resulted in high amounts of activated TGF-β1 being released by the contractile force of myofibroblasts.

Their results indicate that, over time, as myofibroblasts remodel and stiffen the ECM during wound healing, the matrix becomes a loaded "mechanical spring" that puts strain on TGF-β1 complexes, causing them to be easily pulled apart and activated by contracting myofibroblasts.

Because TGF-β1 induces further myofibroblast activity and, ultimately, tissue fibrosis, limiting ECM reorganization during wound healing might therefore be an effective therapeutic approach to prevent fibrosis.

###

Klingberg, F., et al. 2014. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201402006

About The Journal of Cell Biology

The Journal of Cell Biology (JCB) is published by The Rockefeller University Press. All editorial decisions on manuscripts submitted are made by active scientists in conjunction with our in-house scientific editors. JCB content is posted to PubMed Central, where it is available to the public for free six months after publication. Authors retain copyright of their published works, and third parties may reuse the content for non-commercial purposes under a creative commons license. For more information, please visit http://www.jcb.org.

Research reported in the press release was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Collaborative Health Research Program, the Canada Foundation for Innovation and Ontario Research Fund, the Heart and Stroke Foundation Ontario, and the European Union's Seventh Framework Program.

Rita Sullivan King | Eurek Alert!

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds
26.05.2017 | Cornell University

nachricht How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system
26.05.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>