Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

For osteoporosis patients, exercise pill one step closer to reality

09.04.2010
New research in the FASEB Journal shows that bone cells use microscopic hair-like projections, called cilia, to turn on bone-forming genes in response to mechanical loads

For osteoporosis patients unable to exercise, help may be on the way. That's because scientists have discovered precisely how mechanical stress, such as exercise, promotes new bone growth. This opens the door to entirely new therapies that can trick bones into thinking they are getting a workout. The research report describing this advance is published online in The FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org).

This research provides insight into the identification of the signaling mechanisms used by primary cilia to regulate the capacity of bone cells to sense fluid flow. This crucial information could lead to the development of new drugs that cause the same benefits to the skeleton as exercise, which would be beneficial to patients with osteoporosis.

"We believe that this study takes the field an important step forward in answering a two hundred-year-old question, 'How does bone sense mechanical loads?'" said Christopher R. Jacobs, Ph.D., co-author of the study from the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University in Stanford, CA. "Ultimately, we hope that the mechanisms identified in this study can be exploited to develop novel treatments for bone loss and perhaps a large number of other diseases involving the remarkably versatile primary cilia."

The research by Jacobs and colleagues builds on existing knowledge about the role of primary cilia (hair-like organelles that line the surfaces of some cells) on fluid flow in bone cells. When bone carries weight during physical exercise, bone cells are subjected to fluid flow, which is detected by primary cilia in bone cells. To make their discovery, the scientists studied an enzyme found in bone cells called adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6), which is compartmentalized within the primary cilia. This enzyme inactivates very quickly in response to fluid flow, which initiates a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to increased expression of bone-forming genes. Researchers exposed bone cells to fluid flow and measured the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, a signaling molecule synthesized by AC6, and found the levels quickly decreased after a two-minute bout of fluid flow. When scientists used RNA interference to inhibit the formation of primary cilia, as well as the production of AC6, the levels did not decrease in response to fluid flow. Results suggest that the short bout of fluid flow was sufficient to increase expression of a gene important for bone formation called cyclo-oxygenase 2. This study is one of the first to suggest that primary cilia play an important role in diseases such as osteoporosis.

"It's easy for doctors to tell osteoporosis patients that they need to get a good workout a few days each week, but the reality is that many patients are too frail to do so," said Gerald Weissmann, M.D., Editor-in-Chief of The FASEB Journal. "This ground-breaking study details the exact biochemical signals used by bone cells to turn the daily work-out into new bone. This research pinpoints new targets for drugs that will allow physicians to break this cycle of frailty, bone loss, and incapacity, so that patients can live longer, healthier, and more active lives."

Receive monthly highlights from The FASEB Journal by e-mail. Sign up at http://www.faseb.org/fjupdate.aspx. The FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org) is published by the Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). The journal has been recognized by the Special Libraries Association as one of the top 100 most influential biomedical journals of the past century and is the most cited biology journal worldwide according to the Institute for Scientific Information.

FASEB comprises 23 societies with more than 90,000 members, making it the largest coalition of biomedical research associations in the United States. FASEB enhances the ability of scientists and engineers to improve—through their research—the health, well-being and productivity of all people. FASEB's mission is to advance health and welfare by promoting progress and education in biological and biomedical sciences through service to our member societies and collaborative advocacy.

Details: Ronald Y. Kwon, Sara Temiyasathit, Padmaja Tummala, Clarence C. Quah, and Christopher R. Jacobs. Primary cilium-dependent mechanosensing is mediated by adenylyl cyclase 6 and cyclic AMP in bone cells. FASEB J. doi:10.1096/fj.09-148007 ; http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/abstract/fj.09-148007v1

Cody Mooneyhan | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.faseb.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Researchers identify how bacterium survives in oxygen-poor environments
22.11.2017 | Columbia University

nachricht Researchers discover specific tumor environment that triggers cells to metastasize
22.11.2017 | University of California - San Diego

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New discovery: Common jellyfish is actually two species

22.11.2017 | Life Sciences

Researchers discover specific tumor environment that triggers cells to metastasize

22.11.2017 | Life Sciences

A material with promising properties

22.11.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>