Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Orangutans harbor ancient primate Alu

30.04.2012
Alu elements infiltrated the ancestral primate genome about 65 million years ago.

Once gained an Alu element is rarely lost so comparison of Alu between species can be used to map primate evolution and diversity. New research published in BioMed Central's open access journal Mobile DNA has found a single Alu, which appears to be an ancestral great ape Alu, that has uniquely multiplied within the orangutan genome.

Analysis of DNA sequences has found over a million Alu elements within each primate genome, many of which are species specific: 5,000 are unique to humans, while 2,300 others are exclusive to chimpanzees. In contrast the orangutan lineage (Sumatran and Bornean orangutans) only has 250 specific Alu.

These tiny pieces of mobile DNA are able to copy themselves using a method similar to retroviruses. But, because this is an inexact process, a segment of 'host' DNA is duplicated at the Alu insertion sites and these footprints, known as 'target site duplications', can be used to 'identify' Alu insertions. Alu elements can be thought of as molecular fossils, and a shared Alu element sequence and location within the genome indicates a common ancestor.

Researchers from Louisiana State University, in collaboration with the Zoological Society of San Diego and the Institute of Systems Biology in Seattle, found a single Alu which is present in great apes, but absent from gibbons and siamang, and so was likely acquired after ancestors of these species diverged. This founder Alu element was found in an intron (non-coding DNA) on chromosome 7.

Subsequent copying of this Alu, visible as insertions into chromosomes 4, 17, and 12, are unique to orangutans, suggesting that the founder Alu inserted before orangutans separated from other members of the Hominidae (humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees). The Sumatran orangutan also has a copy of this Alu in chromosome 13, and has gained a daughter Alu, which rapidly expanded into chromosomes 21, 2b, and 17. These extra insertions are able to pinpoint the divergence of Sumatran and Bornean orangutans.

The ancestral Alu has been much less active in other great apes, but can still provide information about speciation. While still on chromosome 7 the Alu gained three mutations which can be traced to before the split of gorillas with humans and chimpanzees. It subsequently copied itself into chromosome 3 of humans, indicating that this must have occurred after humans split from bonobos and chimpanzees.

Prof Batzer, who led this research along with Jerilyn Walker and Miriam Konkel, explained "Despite otherwise low activity of Alu retrotransposition in orangutans, this ancestral Alu, still present on chromosome 7, has duplicated more rapidly in orangutans than other Hominidae and likely served as an ancient backseat driver that contributed to the recent orangutan-specific expansion of the Alu family."

Media Contact

Dr Hilary Glover
Scientific Press Officer, BioMed Central
Tel: +44 (0) 20 3192 2370
Mob: +44 (0) 778 698 1967
Email: hilary.glover@biomedcentral.com
Notes to Editors
1. Orangutan Alu Quiescence Reveals Possible Source Element: Support for Ancient Backseat Drivers Jerilyn A Walker, Miriam K Konkel, Brygg Ullmer, Christopher P Monceaux, Oliver A Ryder, Robert Hubley, Arian F A Smit and Mark A Batzer Mobile DNA (in press)

Please name the journal in any story you write. If you are writing for the web, please link to the article. All articles are available free of charge, according to BioMed Central's open access policy.

Article citation and URL available on request on the day of publication.

2. Mobile DNA is an online, peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes articles providing novel insights into DNA rearrangements, ranging from transposition and other types of recombination mechanisms to patterns and processes of mobile element and host genome evolution.

3. BioMed Central (http://www.biomedcentral.com/) is an STM (Science, Technology and Medicine) publisher which has pioneered the open access publishing model. All peer-reviewed research articles published by BioMed Central are made immediately and freely accessible online, and are licensed to allow redistribution and reuse. BioMed Central is part of Springer Science+Business Media, a leading global publisher in the STM sector.

Dr Hilary Glover | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.biomedcentral.com

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Antimicrobial substances identified in Komodo dragon blood
23.02.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht New Mechanisms of Gene Inactivation may prevent Aging and Cancer
23.02.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Alternsforschung - Fritz-Lipmann-Institut e.V. (FLI)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

From rocks in Colorado, evidence of a 'chaotic solar system'

23.02.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

'Quartz' crystals at the Earth's core power its magnetic field

23.02.2017 | Earth Sciences

Antimicrobial substances identified in Komodo dragon blood

23.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>