Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Olfactory bulb glial cell transplant preserves muscles in paraplegic rats

25.09.2008
Researchers from the “Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa” (CSIC-UAM), Córdoba University and the “Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia” (CSIC) have analysed the degree of preservation in the skeletal muscles of paraplegic rats treated with a transplant of Olfactory bulb glial cells (OBG).

Spinal chord injuries represent a serious and irreversible handicap that is sadly frequent in our society. Because of the permanent break in the nervous connections between the brain and the organs and muscles, such injuries impair their movement inducing atrophy and deterioration while they disturb organic functions.

The pioneering studies carried out by Santiago Ramón y Cajal established that while nerve cells from the peripheral nervous system (PNS) have the capacity to repair themselves, the same does not apply to adult brain cells and spinal cord cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The difference is not in the nerve cells themselves but in the cellular enviroment that gives them support - the glial cells. These cells are involved in the transmision of nerve impulses and produce myelin. Schwann cells (a variety of glial cell) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) provide factors that contribute to the regeneration of the axons whereas the glia of the CNS do not have such a nurturing role. For this reason, one of the strategic experimental approaches for the regeneration of spinal chord neurons consists in altering their cellular enviroment by introducing cells that create a supportive environment for axon regeneration in the damaged area. The glial cells that surround the axons in the olfactory bulb (OBG) are a promising example because they promote axon regeneration in the CNS.

In an experiment using paraplegic rats, it was found that 8 months after a transplant treatment in a transected spinal chord using OBS, axon regeneration was taking place and sensorial and motor recovery was perceived in behavioural tests. The investigation recently published in the Journal of Physiology (London) [J Physiol 586.10 (2008) pp 2593–2610], with the collaboration of scientists from the “Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa” (CSIC-UAM), Córdoba University, and the “Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia” (CSIC), has analysed for the first time the muscular characteristics of paraplegic animals treated with an OBG transplant and compared them with those of untreated paraplegic animals and healthy control animals.

The study exhibits a high correlation between the functional capability shown by the animals in behavioural tests and some biochemical parameters. The parameters measured differentiate the muscular characteristics of paraplegic and healthy animals and they established that animals treated with the transplant had more similar characteristics to the healthy animals than the untreated paraplegic animals. In spite of the global effect of OBG transplants, only 3 of the 9 treated animals (and none of the untreated) showed near normal muscle characteristics. This could imply that maintaining the muscular phenotype might rely on the interaction between the transplanted cells and other factors.

One the possible factors that affect the result could be the physical exercise to which the animals were subjected. This could be significant since it is well known that rehabilitation treatment aids regenerative therapies. Both voluntary and assisted exercise stimulates synaptic plasticity and the regenerative capabilities of neurons of the CNS as well as re-establishes adequate trophic factors. The role of the OBG in establishing a nurturing cellular environment for axon regeneration could induce adaptation in the local spinal circuits that favours the conservation of muscular properties and automatic contractions even while the damaged neural pathways are not fully recovered.

Oficina de Cultura Científica | alfa
Further information:
http://www.uam.es
http://jp.physoc.org/cgi/content/abstract/586/10/2593

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?
17.11.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

nachricht Microbial resident enables beetles to feed on a leafy diet
17.11.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>