Researchers at Oregon Health & Science University School of Dentistry have discovered that TDP-43, a protein strongly linked to ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) and other neurodegenerative diseases, appears to activate a variety of different molecular pathways when genetically manipulated. The findings have implications for understanding and possibly treating ALS and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
ALS affects two in 100,000 adults in the United States annually and the prognosis for patients is grim.The new discovery is published online in G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics (and the July 2012 print issue of G3).
Using a fruit fly model, the OHSU team genetically increased or eliminated TDP-43 to study its effect on the central nervous system. By using massively parallel sequencing methods to profile the expression of genes in the central nervous system, the team found that the loss of TDP-43 results in widespread gene activation and altered splicing, much of which is reversed by rescue of TDP-43 expression. Although previous studies have implicated both absence and over expression of TDP-43 in ALS, the OHSU study showed little overlap in the gene expression between these two manipulations, suggesting that the bulk of the genes affected are different.
"Our data suggest that TDP-43 plays a role in synaptic transmission, synaptic release and endocytosis," said Dennis Hazelett, Ph.D., lead author of the study. "We also uncovered a potential novel regulation of several pathways, many targets of which appear to be conserved."
Additional study authors include: Jer-Cherng Chang, Ph.D., OHSU School of Dentistry Department of Integrative Biosciences; Daniel Lakeland, a graduate student at the University of Southern California; and David Morton, Ph.D., professor and associate dean for research, OHSU School of Dentistry Department of Integrative Biosciences.
The study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (NS071186); the ALS Association; and the Muscular Dystrophy Association.
Sydney Clevenger | EurekAlert!
Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds
26.05.2017 | Cornell University
How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system
26.05.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy