Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Nuclear Pores Call on Different Assembly Mechanisms at Different Cell Cycle Stages

11.06.2010
Nuclear pores are the primary gatekeepers mediating communication between a cell's nucleus and its cytoplasm. Recently these large multiprotein transport channels have also been shown to play an essential role in developmental gene regulation. Despite the critical role in nuclear function, however, nuclear pore complexes remain somewhat shadowy figures, with many details about their formation shrouded in mystery.

Now a team of investigators from the Salk Institute for Biological Studies has illuminated key differences in the mechanisms behind nuclear pores formed at two distinct stages in the cell cycle. Their findings, to be published in the June 12 issue of Cell, may provide insights into conditions such as cancer, developmental defects, and sudden cardiac arrest.

Nuclear pores, which are built from 30 different proteins, assemble during interphase, the period when the nucleus expands and replicates its DNA, and following mitosis, when the nuclear membrane reforms around the segregated chromosomes to create two identical nuclei.

But, explains Martin Hetzer, Ph.D., Hearst Endowment associate professor in Salk's Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, who led the study, there has been a longstanding question about whether assembly pathways at the distinct cell cycle stages use different or similar mechanisms. "Interphase assembly is different from post-mitotic assembly in that the nuclear membrane is fully formed around chromatin," he says, "whereas post-mitotic assembly occurs into the reforming nuclear membrane. So the topology of the nuclear membrane is very different during these two cell cycle stages."

While some aspects of post-mitotic assembly were known, almost nothing was understood about how assembly of the pores occurs during interphase, when the cell doubles the number of nuclear pores to provide sufficient levels of NPC components for the two daughter cells. A parallel process takes place during differentiation of an oocyte, when millions of nuclear pore components are integrated into the nuclear membrane of the egg cell, so any findings about interphase assembly could also be relevant to embryonic development.

"We were able to show for the first time that there are two distinct mechanisms behind how these large protein complexes assemble to accommodate cell cycle-dependent differences in nuclear membrane topology," says Hetzer.

The team identified a key difference in how the Nup107/160 complex, which is essential for NPC formation, is targeted to new assembly sites in the NE. Surprisingly, one of the complex members, Nup133, is directed to the pore assembly site via a completely novel mechanism that involves sensing of the nuclear membrane's curvature. "The sensor was identified in a bioinformatics screen, and it was not known whether it was really functional in vivo," says co-first author Christine Doucet, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in Hetzer's lab. "But we thought it would fit in with the topology of the nuclear membrane and the sites of the new nuclear pore complexes because they are highly curved. So if the sensor was playing a role in assembly, it was a really neat way to coordinate the assembly of all the components at the right position and the right time."

The second difference the group discovered is that in post-mitotic assembly, but not during interphase, a protein called ELYS played a key role in directing the NUP107/160 complex, which is critical to the formation of pores, to the assembly sites. In contrast, the transmembrane Nup POM121, is specifically required for interphase assembly.POM121 is the earliest known protein at pore assembly sites yet how it is directed there is still under investigation.

"We knew both proteins were essential for pore assembly in different ways, but we didn't know how," says co-first author Jessica Talamas, also a postdoctoral fellow in Hetzer's lab. "There was a discrepancy in the literature about POM121, so we were trying to figure out what was going on. It was one of those lightbulb moments, we were looking at the data and realized that POM121 was only required for interphase assembly, and then everything just made sense."

Because these processes are at work in every cell that divides, the study is especially germane to one of the big questions in the field: how the number of nuclear pores is regulated. It's a question with multiple ramifications. Nuclear pore numbers are misregulated in cancer cells, for example, so the findings have applications in cancer research. In addition, because neurons require a large number of nuclear pores, evidence is mounting that defects in nuclear pore assembly are linked to developmental defects in the central nervous system. Assembly defects during development have also been implicated in conditions such as sudden cardiac arrest.

"In establishing differences between the two assembly pathways, the findings have provided the first glimpse of a mechanistic understanding," Hetzer says.

This study was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health.

About the Salk Institute for Biological Studies:
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is one of the world's preeminent basic research institutions, where internationally renowned faculty probe fundamental life science questions in a unique, collaborative, and creative environment. Focused both on discovery and on mentoring future generations of researchers, Salk scientists make groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of cancer, aging, Alzheimer's, diabetes and infectious diseases by studying neuroscience, genetics, cell and plant biology, and related disciplines.

Faculty achievements have been recognized with numerous honors, including Nobel Prizes and memberships in the National Academy of Sciences. Founded in 1960 by polio vaccine pioneer Jonas Salk, M.D., the Institute is an independent nonprofit organization and architectural landmark.

Gina Kirchweger | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.salk.edu

Further reports about: Biological Studies NPC Nobel Prize Nuclear POM121 cardiac arrest cell cycle cell death pores

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nanoparticle Exposure Can Awaken Dormant Viruses in the Lungs
16.01.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
13.01.2017 | Princeton University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Water - as the underlying driver of the Earth’s carbon cycle

17.01.2017 | Earth Sciences

Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

17.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Smart homes will “LISTEN” to your voice

17.01.2017 | Architecture and Construction

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>