Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

NIH-Supported Researchers Map Epigenome of More Than 100 Tissue and Cell Types

19.02.2015

Much like mapping the human genome laid the foundations for understanding the genetic basis of human health, new maps of the human epigenome may further unravel the complex links between DNA and disease. The epigenome is part of the machinery that helps direct how genes are turned off and on in different types of cells.

Researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund’s Roadmap Epigenomics Program ( http://commonfund.nih.gov/epigenomics/index  ) have mapped the epigenomes of more than 100 types of cells and tissues, providing new insight into which parts of the genome are used to make a particular type of cell. The data, available to the biomedical research community, can be found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information website ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ ).


Image courtesy of Nature and Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium

Reference epigenomes are available for more than 100 cell and tissue types.

“This represents a major advance in the ongoing effort to understand how the 3 billion letters of an individual’s DNA instruction book are able to instruct vastly different molecular activities, depending on the cellular context,” said NIH Director Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D. “This outpouring of data-rich publications, produced by a remarkable team of creative scientists, provides powerful momentum for the rapidly growing field of epigenomics.”

Researchers from the NIH Common Fund’s Roadmap Epigenomics Program published a description of the epigenome maps in the journal Nature. More than 20 additional papers, published in Nature and Nature-associated journals, show how these maps can be used to study human biology.

“What the Roadmap Epigenomics Program has delivered is a way to look at the human genome in its living, breathing nature from cell type to cell type,” said Manolis Kellis, Ph.D., professor of computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and senior author of the paper.

Understanding epigenomics

Almost all human cells have identical genomes that contain instructions on how to make the many different cells and tissues in the body. During the development of different types of cells, regulatory proteins turn genes on and off and, in doing so, establish a layer of chemical signatures that make up the epigenome of each cell. In the Roadmap Epigenomics Program, researchers compared these epigenomic signatures and established their differences across a variety of cell types. The resulting information can help us understand how changes to the genome and epigenome can lead to conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, asthma, and fetal growth abnormalities.

The value of epigenomic data

Researchers can now take data from different cell types and directly compare them. “Today, sequencing the human genome can be done rapidly and cheaply, but interpreting the genome remains a challenge,” said Bing Ren, Ph.D., professor of cellular and molecular medicine at the University of California, San Diego, and co-author of the Nature paper and several of the associated papers. “These 111 reference epigenome maps are essentially a vocabulary book that helps us decipher each DNA segment in distinct cell and tissue types. These maps are like snapshots of the human genome in action.”

“This is the most comprehensive catalog of epigenomic data from primary human cells and tissues to date,” said Lisa Helbling Chadwick, Ph.D., project team leader and a program director at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), part of NIH. “This coordinated effort, along with uniform data processing, makes it much easier for researchers to make direct comparisons across the entire data set.”

“Researchers from the 88 projects supported by the program, including those from this recent series of papers, have propelled the development of new epigenomic technologies,” said John Satterlee, Ph.D., co-coordinator of the Roadmap Epigenomics Program, and program director at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of NIH. Satterlee added that the work of this program has served as a foundation for continued exploration of the human epigenome through the International Human Epigenome Consortium ( http://www.ihec-epigenomes.org/ ).

“With this increased understanding of the full epigenome, and the datasets available to the entire scientific community, the NIH Common Fund is striving to catalyze future research, to aid the understanding of how epigenomics plays a role in human diseases, with the expectation that further studies will identify early indications of disease and targets for therapeutics,” said James Anderson, M.D., Ph.D., director of NIH Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives that oversees the NIH Common Fund.

NIDA, NIEHS, and the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders are co-administrators of the NIH Common Fund’s Epigenomics Program.

Reference:
Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium. 2015. Integrative analysis of 111 reference human epigenomes. Nature; doi: 10.1038/nature14248.

The NIH Common Fund supports a series of exceptionally high impact research programs that are broadly relevant to health and disease. Common Fund programs are designed to overcome major research barriers and pursue emerging opportunities for the benefit of the biomedical research community at large. The research products of the Common Fund programs are expected to catalyze disease-specific research supported by the NIH Institutes and Centers. To learn more about the NIH Common Fund, visit http://commonfund.nih.gov .

NIDA supports most of the world’s research on the health aspects of drug abuse and addiction. The institute carries out a large variety of programs to inform policy and improve practice. Fact sheets on the health effects of drugs of abuse and information on NIDA research and other activities can be found at http://www.drugabuse.gov, which is now compatible with your smartphone, iPad, or tablet. To order publications in English or Spanish, call NIDA’s DrugPubs research dissemination center at 1-877-NIDA-NIH or 240-645-0228 (TDD) or email requests to drugpubs@nida.nih.gov. Online ordering is available at http://drugpubs.drugabuse.gov . NIDA’s media guide can be found at http://drugabuse.gov/mediaguide/ , and its easy-to-read website can be found at http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov 

NIEHS supports research to understand the effects of the environment on human health and is part of NIH. For more information on environmental health topics, visit http://www.niehs.nih.gov. Subscribe to one or more of the NIEHS news lists ( http://www.niehs.nih.gov/news/newslist/index.cfm  ) to stay current on NIEHS news, press releases, grant opportunities, training, events, and publications.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov 

NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health®


Contacts:

Joe Balintfy, NIEHS
919-541-1993
balintfy@niehs.nih.gov

Robin Mackar, NIEHS
919-541-0073
rmackar@niehs.nih.gov

NIDA Press Office
301-443-6245
media@nida.nih.gov

Robin Mackar
News Director
rmackar@mail.nih.gov
Phone: 919-541-0073

Joe Balintfy | newswise

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht What happens in the cell nucleus after fertilization
06.12.2016 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Speed data for the brain’s navigation system

06.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

What happens in the cell nucleus after fertilization

06.12.2016 | Life Sciences

IHP presents the fastest silicon-based transistor in the world

05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>