New research* at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has allowed scientists to observe ion channels within the surface membrane for the first time, potentially offering insights for future drug development.
Because they function as gatekeepers for messages passing among nerve cells, ion channels are the target of a host of drugs that treat psychological and neurological issues. But because the proteins that form the channels are hard to observe, obtaining knowledge of their operation has proved difficult. Studies of the proteins have been limited to either the molecules in isolation or dried and crystallized to get an idea of their structures. Now, a multi-institutional team working at NIST’s Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) has provided a glimpse of the proteins in their naturally occurring form and interacting with the surrounding cell membrane.
The findings, just reported in the journal Nature, improve our understanding of the moving portion of the ion channel that responds to voltage differences across the cell membrane, according to team leader Stephen White. While the work may not be of practical medical use for some time, he says, it is a useful step toward understanding how signals travel—particularly among neurons.
“All of the communications in the body are electrical,” says White, a biophysicist at the University of California, Irvine. “The motion of life depends on ion channels responding to voltage differences, so that they open and close at just the right moment, controlling the use of energy. Without them, nothing would happen in the body.”
By investigating this portion of the ion channel, called a voltage-sensing domain, the team has provided science’s first glimpse of how an ion channel’s shape and motion affects the cell membrane, which in turn helps protect and stabilize the proteins that form the channel. White says further research could lead to a complete picture of how ion channels function.
“We still can’t see in detail how the gate opens and closes, but that’s our eventual goal,” White says. “We hope that someday we’ll be able to detect the motion of these voltage-sensing domains in their up and down states.”
The research team, jointly headed by White and Kenton Swartz of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), also includes scientists from the University of Missouri, the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the NCNR. Funding for the study was provided by the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and NINDS.
* D. Krepkiy, M. Mihailescu, J.A. Freites, E.V. Schow, D.L. Worcester, K. Gawrisch, D.J. Tobias, S.H. White and K. Swartz. Structure and hydration of membranes embedded with voltage-sensing domains. Nature, 462, pp. 473-479 (Nov. 26, 2009), doi:10.1038/nature08542
Chad Boutin | Newswise Science News
Warming ponds could accelerate climate change
21.02.2017 | University of Exeter
An alternative to opioids? Compound from marine snail is potent pain reliever
21.02.2017 | University of Utah
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
21.02.2017 | Earth Sciences
21.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
21.02.2017 | Trade Fair News