Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Natural (born) killer cells battle pediatric leukemia

19.08.2014

Researchers at Children's Hospital Los Angeles have shown that a select team of immune-system cells from patients with leukemia can be multiplied in the lab, creating an army of natural killer cells that can be used to destroy the cancer cells. Results of their in vitro study, published August 19 in the journal Leukemia, could one day provide a less toxic and more effective way to battle this cancer in children.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer of childhood. This disease hinders the development of healthy blood cells while cancer cells proliferate. Currently, children with ALL receive chemotherapy for two to three years, exposing them to significant side effects including changes in normal development and future fertility.

Leukemia Cell

A leukemia cell coated with antibody is marked for destruction by activated natural killer cells.

Credit: Children's Hospital Los Angeles

As a way to avoid these adverse effects, investigators have been researching how to supercharge the body's innate cancer-fighting ability – a technique called immunotherapy. One branch of the immune system – and a possible component of immunotherapy – includes a class of cells called natural killer (NK) cells. These specialized white blood cells police the body and destroy abnormal cells before they turn cancerous.

Using NK cells as immunotherapy presents challenges. If the cells come from a donor, the patient might reject the cells or worse, be at risk for graft-versus-host disease – where contaminating donor cells regard the patient's body as foreign and attack it. To avoid these problems, the researchers wondered if they could enlist the help of the patients' own, or autologous, NK cells. Using autologous cells would remove the risks associated with donor cells.

But using autologous cells raised other issues. Would it be possible to multiply NK cells from patients with leukemia, even though they had very few to start with? Also, could the patient's own NK cells attack their leukemia… and win?

"In this study, we used NK cells and ALL cells from the same pediatric patients. We found that autologous natural killer cells will destroy the patient's leukemia cells," said Nora Heisterkamp, PhD, of The Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles and one of the co-lead investigators.

To help the NK cells identify their target as leukemia cells, the researchers also added a monoclonal antibody. Antibodies are normally made by cells of the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign material. Researchers can design and produce antibodies, called monoclonal antibodies (mAb), that specifically target a certain protein like the ones found on cancer cells.

In a previous paper, Heisterkamp showed that a mAb targeted to a specific receptor (BAFF-R) on the leukemia cells stimulated the NK cells to attack and kill the cancer. The BAFF-R mAb was also used in this study.

"These results are very promising — with potential as a part of first line therapy and also as a treatment for eliminating any remaining cancer cells, known as minimal residual disease, following standard chemotherapy," said Hisham Abdel-Azim, MD, of Children's Hospital Los Angeles and co-lead investigator on the study. "We anticipate additional pre-clinical testing and then, a clinical trial to evaluate the therapy in children with leukemia."

###

Additional contributors include first author Fei Fei, Min Lim, Aswathi A. George, Jonathan Kirzner, Robert Seeger, and John Groffen of Children's Hospital Los Angeles; and Dean Lee of MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX.

Funding for the study was provided in part by grants from Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, the V-Foundation and Public Health Service grant CA090321.

About Children's Hospital Los Angeles

Children's Hospital Los Angeles has been named the best children's hospital on the West Coast and among the top five in the nation for clinical excellence with its selection to the prestigious U.S. News & World Report Honor Roll. Children's Hospital is home to The Saban Research Institute, one of the largest and most productive pediatric research facilities in the United States. Children's Hospital is also one of America's premier teaching hospitals through its affiliation since 1932 with the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California.

For more information, visit CHLA.org and follow us on ResearCHLAblog.org.

Ellin Kavanagh | Eurek Alert!

Further reports about: ALL autologous chemotherapy immune immunotherapy investigators leukemia natural

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Why do animals fight members of other species?
24.04.2015 | University of California - Los Angeles

nachricht Is a small artificially composed virus fragment the key to a Chikungunya vaccine?
24.04.2015 | Paul-Ehrlich-Institut - Bundesinstitut für Impfstoffe und biomedizinische Arzneimittel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fast and Accurate 3-D Imaging Technique to Track Optically-Trapped Particles

KAIST researchers published an article on the development of a novel technique to precisely track the 3-D positions of optically-trapped particles having complicated geometry in high speed in the April 2015 issue of Optica.

Daejeon, Republic of Korea, April 23, 2015--Optical tweezers have been used as an invaluable tool for exerting micro-scale force on microscopic particles and...

Im Focus: NOAA, Tulane identify second possible specimen of 'pocket shark' ever found

Pocket sharks are among the world's rarest finds

A very small and rare species of shark is swimming its way through scientific literature. But don't worry, the chances of this inches-long vertebrate biting...

Im Focus: Drexel materials scientists putting a new spin on computing memory

Ever since computers have been small enough to be fixtures on desks and laps, their central processing has functioned something like an atomic Etch A Sketch, with electromagnetic fields pushing data bits into place to encode data.

Unfortunately, the same drawbacks and perils of the mechanical sketch board have been just as pervasive in computing: making a change often requires starting...

Im Focus: Exploding stars help to understand thunderclouds on Earth

How is lightning initiated in thunderclouds? This is difficult to answer - how do you measure electric fields inside large, dangerously charged clouds? It was discovered, more or less by coincidence, that cosmic rays provide suitable probes to measure electric fields within thunderclouds. This surprising finding is published in Physical Review Letters on April 24th. The measurements were performed with the LOFAR radio telescope located in the Netherlands.

How is lightning initiated in thunderclouds? This is difficult to answer - how do you measure electric fields inside large, dangerously charged clouds? It was...

Im Focus: On the trail of a trace gas

Max Planck researcher Buhalqem Mamtimin determines how much nitrogen oxide is released into the atmosphere from agriculturally used oases.

In order to make statements about current and future air pollution, scientists use models which simulate the Earth’s atmosphere. A lot of information such as...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

HHL Energy Conference on May 11/12, 2015: Students Discuss about Decentralized Energy

23.04.2015 | Event News

“Developing our cities, preserving our planet”: Nobel Laureates gather for the first time in Asia

23.04.2015 | Event News

HHL's Entrepreneurship Conference on FinTech

13.04.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Electrons Move Like Light in Three-Dimensional Solid

24.04.2015 | Materials Sciences

Connecting Three Atomic Layers Puts Semiconducting Science on Its Edge

24.04.2015 | Materials Sciences

Understanding the Body’s Response to Worms and Allergies

24.04.2015 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>