Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Natural (born) killer cells battle pediatric leukemia

19.08.2014

Researchers at Children's Hospital Los Angeles have shown that a select team of immune-system cells from patients with leukemia can be multiplied in the lab, creating an army of natural killer cells that can be used to destroy the cancer cells. Results of their in vitro study, published August 19 in the journal Leukemia, could one day provide a less toxic and more effective way to battle this cancer in children.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer of childhood. This disease hinders the development of healthy blood cells while cancer cells proliferate. Currently, children with ALL receive chemotherapy for two to three years, exposing them to significant side effects including changes in normal development and future fertility.

Leukemia Cell

A leukemia cell coated with antibody is marked for destruction by activated natural killer cells.

Credit: Children's Hospital Los Angeles

As a way to avoid these adverse effects, investigators have been researching how to supercharge the body's innate cancer-fighting ability – a technique called immunotherapy. One branch of the immune system – and a possible component of immunotherapy – includes a class of cells called natural killer (NK) cells. These specialized white blood cells police the body and destroy abnormal cells before they turn cancerous.

Using NK cells as immunotherapy presents challenges. If the cells come from a donor, the patient might reject the cells or worse, be at risk for graft-versus-host disease – where contaminating donor cells regard the patient's body as foreign and attack it. To avoid these problems, the researchers wondered if they could enlist the help of the patients' own, or autologous, NK cells. Using autologous cells would remove the risks associated with donor cells.

But using autologous cells raised other issues. Would it be possible to multiply NK cells from patients with leukemia, even though they had very few to start with? Also, could the patient's own NK cells attack their leukemia… and win?

"In this study, we used NK cells and ALL cells from the same pediatric patients. We found that autologous natural killer cells will destroy the patient's leukemia cells," said Nora Heisterkamp, PhD, of The Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles and one of the co-lead investigators.

To help the NK cells identify their target as leukemia cells, the researchers also added a monoclonal antibody. Antibodies are normally made by cells of the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign material. Researchers can design and produce antibodies, called monoclonal antibodies (mAb), that specifically target a certain protein like the ones found on cancer cells.

In a previous paper, Heisterkamp showed that a mAb targeted to a specific receptor (BAFF-R) on the leukemia cells stimulated the NK cells to attack and kill the cancer. The BAFF-R mAb was also used in this study.

"These results are very promising — with potential as a part of first line therapy and also as a treatment for eliminating any remaining cancer cells, known as minimal residual disease, following standard chemotherapy," said Hisham Abdel-Azim, MD, of Children's Hospital Los Angeles and co-lead investigator on the study. "We anticipate additional pre-clinical testing and then, a clinical trial to evaluate the therapy in children with leukemia."

###

Additional contributors include first author Fei Fei, Min Lim, Aswathi A. George, Jonathan Kirzner, Robert Seeger, and John Groffen of Children's Hospital Los Angeles; and Dean Lee of MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX.

Funding for the study was provided in part by grants from Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, the V-Foundation and Public Health Service grant CA090321.

About Children's Hospital Los Angeles

Children's Hospital Los Angeles has been named the best children's hospital on the West Coast and among the top five in the nation for clinical excellence with its selection to the prestigious U.S. News & World Report Honor Roll. Children's Hospital is home to The Saban Research Institute, one of the largest and most productive pediatric research facilities in the United States. Children's Hospital is also one of America's premier teaching hospitals through its affiliation since 1932 with the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California.

For more information, visit CHLA.org and follow us on ResearCHLAblog.org.

Ellin Kavanagh | Eurek Alert!

Further reports about: ALL autologous chemotherapy immune immunotherapy investigators leukemia natural

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed
18.01.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht 127 at one blow...
18.01.2017 | Stiftung Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>