Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Using Mother Nature to provide an environmentally friendly method for reducing mosquitoes

21.07.2010
New research at the University of Haifa has made a breakthrough in identifying chemical substances released by mosquitoes' natural predators that function as warning signals for egg laying mosquitoes.

A scientific breakthrough might assist in the fight against mosquitoes. New research carried out at the University of Haifa in collaboration with researchers from other universities has chemically identified, for the first time, compounds released by mosquitoes' natural aquatic predators that function as warning signals for egg laying mosquitoes. Introducing these natural chemicals into mosquito breeding sites will cause the mosquitoes to sense risk of predation to their progeny and avoid laying their eggs there. These findings will soon be published in the prestigious journal Ecology Letters.

Ecologists and evolutionary biologists have known for a long time that many prey species can detect predators chemically and, upon detection, take various actions to avoid being eaten or avoid having their progeny eaten. Yet, the chemical identity of the predator-released chemicals has remained elusive. Knowing the chemical identity of these compounds would greatly facilitate scientists’ understanding of predator-prey relationships and the importance of these compounds in affecting ecological communities. They may also provide an eco-friendly alternative for mosquito control.

The new breakthrough research, funded by the Israel Science Foundation, was developed in Prof. Leon Blaustein's laboratory at the University of Haifa. Prof. Blaustein’s research partners comprised a multi-disciplinary group: Alon Silberbush, a doctoral student, Dr. Shai Markman, a chemical ecologist from University of Haifa-Oranim, Dr. Efraim Lewinsohn and Einat Bar, chemists at the Newe Yaar Research Center, and Prof. Joel E. Cohen, a mathematical and population biologist at Rockefeller and Columbia Universities.

Previous research from Blaustein’s lab demonstrated that the mosquito, Culiseta longiareolata, chemically detects a voracious predator of its progeny in the water, the backswimmer, Notonecta maculata, and avoids laying eggs where the predator is detected. However, until recently, the chemical identity of these predator-released compounds was not known. By screening and comparing the chemicals released by N. maculata with those released by Anax imperator, another aquatic predator that does not elicit a chemical response by the mosquito, they were able to narrow down the potential chemicals that elicited the mosquito’s behavioral response. Blaustein’s group then conducted outdoor experiments on potential chemicals and determined that two of these N. maculata-released chemicals, n-tricosane and n-heneicosane, repelled these mosquitoes from laying eggs. The two compounds together had an additive effect.

Applying such synthetic compounds to mosquito breeding sites would not only result in much fewer mosquitoes in the immediate area but probably reduce mosquito populations overall. Increased searching by pregnant mosquitoes for a breeding site that is perceived as predator-free increases greatly the probability of dying before egg laying; mosquitoes, on average, incur a 20 percent probability of mortality per day. Moreover, mosquitoes, by concentrating their eggs in considerably fewer breeding sites perceived as predation-risk free, would increase competition among the mosquito larvae resulting in fewer and weaker emerging adults.

Prof. Blaustein explains that in the fight against mosquitoes, there are essentially three lines of defense. The first and preferred line of defense is to prevent emergence of adult mosquitoes from aquatic breeding sites. When this has not been done effectively, mosquito control workers resort to trying to kill the adults that have spread to residential areas. This is much more difficult, more expensive, and usually involves chemical pesticides of environmental and health concerns. When these two lines of defense fail, the burden falls on the public to prevent mosquitoes in search of a blood meal from biting them, such as staying indoors and using mosquito repellents applied to the human skin. Prof. Blaustein points out that options for all three lines of defense are often chemicals that negatively affect the environment and are of health concerns to humans. Moreover, mosquitoes often develop resistance to chemical pesticides so there is always a need to find new weapons against mosquitoes. A bacterial pesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis israeIensis, can be very effective in killing mosquito larvae in breeding habitats while having relatively minor non-target effects, but it is rather expensive and is not effective in highly organic-polluted water.

This research group’s new findings of chemical identification of predator-released egg-laying repellants can be a breakthrough in providing a natural, environmentally friendly and inexpensive option to the arsenal in the first line of defense.

Blaustein adds, “While we see this as a potentially large breakthrough in developing another weapon against mosquitoes, the work, is not over. We hope this breakthrough will spur further research to chemically determine other effective predator-released chemicals, particularly ones that are long lasting and then tested for their efficacy.”

For more details contact Rachel Feldman • Tel: +972-4-8288722

Rachel Feldman | University of Haifa
Further information:
http://www.haifa.ac.il

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht The irresistible fragrance of dying vinegar flies
16.08.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

nachricht How protein islands form
15.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

Im Focus: Scientists improve forecast of increasing hazard on Ecuadorian volcano

Researchers from the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and the Instituto Geofisico--Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IGEPN) of Ecuador, showed an increasing volcanic danger on Cotopaxi in Ecuador using a powerful technique known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR).

The Andes region in which Cotopaxi volcano is located is known to contain some of the world's most serious volcanic hazard. A mid- to large-size eruption has...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New thruster design increases efficiency for future spaceflight

16.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Transporting spin: A graphene and boron nitride heterostructure creates large spin signals

16.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

A new method for the 3-D printing of living tissues

16.08.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>