Professor Dan Davis and his team at the Manchester Collaborative Centre for Inflammation Research, working in collaboration with global healthcare company GSK, investigated how different types of immune cells communicate with each other - and how they kill cancerous or infected cells. Their research has been published in Nature Communications.
Professor Davis says: "We studied the immune system and then stumbled across something that may explain why some drugs don't work as well as hoped. We found that immune cells secrete molecules to other cells across a very small gap. This happens when immune cells talk to each other and also, when they kill diseased cells. But crucially, some types of drugs aren't able to penetrate the gap between the cells. So they can't easily reach targets within the gap, to work effectively."
The researchers took molecules of different sizes and colours and used microscopic imaging to see which size of molecule could get into the gap between an immune cell and another cell. They found that only the smaller molecules could penetrate the gap.
They even found that when an immune cell attaches to another cell it clears out all but the smallest molecules between them.
Professor Davis explains the significance of their findings: "Our research demonstrates that any drugs targeting immune cells need to be very small. Antibody proteins, for example, are too big and aren't able to get into the gap between the cells - they're even cleared away when cells meet. To make them more effective they must be smaller - something that GSK is working on."
This research leads to new ideas for making drugs that, for example switch off immune activity in auto-immune diseases like diabetes or increasing immune reactivity to cancer. "A lot of important targets for future medicines are in the very small gap between cells. This research demonstrates why in certain cases we may need drug molecules to be smaller to work effectively," said Simon Chell, from GSK's Biopharm R&D team.
PhD student Adam Cartwright played a key role in the research, spending time at GSK as well as in Davis's lab at the University of Manchester.
He says: "Being able to test out our theory with medicines that GSK has designed was fantastic. The idea that something I had found out can be used to develop treatments to help patients is incredibly exciting."
Professor Davis, author of the popular Penguin paperback The Compatibility Gene, concludes: "The practical application of this basic research comes from bouncing around our ideas with scientists working on drug design. The interaction between academia and pharma is hugely beneficial and we hope it will lead to more effective drug treatments."
Notes for editors
Please note the embargo: 10.00am UK time, Wednesday 19 November 2014
The paper 'The immune synapse clears and excludes molecules above a size threshold' is due to be published in Nature Communications. DOI: NCOMMS6479
High resolution images on request.
The Manchester Collaborative Centre for Inflammation Research The MCCIR was established in October 2012 to address current priorities in inflammatory disease in an open innovation, pre-competitive collaboration between academia and the pharmaceutical industry. GlaxoSmithKline, AstraZeneca and The University of Manchester have each invested £5M to promote "blue skies" research over the next 5 years. Our mission is to bring together clinical, industrial, and academic scientists - and innovate at this interface or in this unique interactive environment.
Register to receive news releases: https://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/register-news-releases/
Media enquiries to:
Media Relations Officer
The University of Manchester
Tel: 0161 2758383
Mob: 07887 561318
Jamie Brown | EurekAlert!
Single-stranded DNA and RNA origami go live
15.12.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard
New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists
15.12.2017 | Louisiana State University
DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.
Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...
MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.
Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...
Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
07.12.2017 | Event News
15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences
15.12.2017 | Life Sciences