Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

MicroRNA network study implicates rewired interactions in cancer

03.05.2010
Genes interact in complex networks that govern cellular processes, much like people connect a social network through relationships. Researchers are now discovering how biological networks change and are rewired in cancer. In a study published today in Genome Research (www.genome.org), scientists have analyzed the genetic networks of microRNAs in tumors, shedding light on how interactions go awry in disease.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules encoded by plant, animal, and viral genomes that have garnered significant interest for their ability to regulate gene expression. Many critical biological processes are regulated by miRNAs, and recent evidence has shown that alterations in miRNA expression is involved in human tumor development and metastasis.

Investigations into the role of miRNAs in cancer up until now have largely focused on the function and expression of individual miRNAs, but miRNA function is more complex and interwoven. "MicroRNAs were always considered as singles, generally unrelated to each other in the miRNA world," said Ohio State University researcher Carlo Croce. "We did not know much about how miRNAs cooperate."

Because a single miRNA is likely to regulate many genes, and each target gene may be regulated by more than one miRNA, Croce and an international team of colleagues suggested that in order to capture the complex patterns of miRNA expression in cancer, the system must be thought of as a "social network" that coordinates the delicate balance of gene regulation.

Croce explained that in healthy tissues, miRNAs are connected in networks and different cell types have different network connections. In cancer, it is likely that normal network interactions have become disrupted or rewired, contributing to disease.

The group analyzed patterns of miRNA expression levels in a large set of normal and cancerous tissue samples, mapping groups of miRNAs exhibiting highly related patterns of expression. Once relationships were recognized, they could then build a genetic network revealing the most highly connected miRNAs, called "hubs."

When comparing the miRNA networks built from normal tissues to the networks built from tumor samples, Croce's team found cases where the miRNA networks have been reprogrammed in cancer. In some cases, they found that the highly connected miRNA hubs changed between cancer and normal tissues.

They also identified even more extreme cases of tumor network changes. "Groups of miRNAs go awry and exit from the 'social network' altogether," Croce said. "In solid cancers there can be a few, or more, groups of such misbehaved miRNAs, while in leukemias we found only one or two." Some of these "unsocial" miRNAs have well-known roles in cancer, but others had not been implicated until now.

This work is particularly significant in that novel cancer genes have been discovered utilizing a strategy based on relationships, rather than up or down regulation of expression. "The miRNAs we discovered can now be used as targets for drug development," Croce added, "or to pinpoint candidate proteins, which, in turn, they regulate."

Scientists from the Ohio State University (Columbus, OH), the University of Ferrara (Ferrara, Italy), The Scripps Research Institute (La Jolla, CA), the University of California, Los Angeles (Los Angeles, CA), Thomas Jefferson University (Philadelphia, PA), the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD), the University of California, San Diego, (La Jolla, CA), the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Berlin, Germany), Institut Pasteur (Paris, France), MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX), and the University of Rome (Rome, Italy) contributed to this study.

This work was primarily funded by grants from the National Cancer Institute, with additional support from the Italian Association for Cancer Research (Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro), the Ministry of Education, University and Research (Italy), and BioPharmaNet.

Media contacts:

Carlo M. Croce, MD is available for more information by contacting Darrell E. Ward, Associate Director of Media Relations at The Ohio State University Medical Center (+1-614-293-3737; darrell.ward@osumc.edu).

Interested reporters may obtain copies of the manuscript from Peggy Calicchia, Editorial Secretary, Genome Research (calicchi@cshl.edu; +1-516-422-4012).

About the article:

The manuscript will be published online and in print on May 3, 2010. Its citation is as follows: Volinia S, Galasso M, Costinean S, Tagliavini L, Gamberoni G, Drusco A, Marchesini J, Mascellani N, Sana ME, Abu Jarour R, et al. Reprogramming of miRNA networks in cancer and leukemia. Genome Res doi:10.1101/gr.098046.109.

About Genome Research:

Launched in 1995, Genome Research (www.genome.org) is an international, continuously published, peer-reviewed journal that focuses on research that provides novel insights into the genome biology of all organisms, including advances in genomic medicine. Among the topics considered by the journal are genome structure and function, comparative genomics, molecular evolution, genome-scale quantitative and population genetics, proteomics, epigenomics, and systems biology. The journal also features exciting gene discoveries and reports of cutting-edge computational biology and high-throughput methodologies.

About Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press:

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is a private, nonprofit institution in New York that conducts research in cancer and other life sciences and has a variety of educational programs. Its Press, originating in 1933, is the largest of the Laboratory's five education divisions and is a publisher of books, journals, and electronic media for scientists, students, and the general public.

Genome Research issues press releases to highlight significant research studies that are published in the journal.

Peggy Calicchia | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cshl.edu
http://www.genome.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Cancer diagnosis: no more needles?
25.05.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

nachricht Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found
25.05.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Alternsforschung - Fritz-Lipmann-Institut e.V. (FLI)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Powerful IT security for the car of the future – research alliance develops new approaches

The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.

Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...

Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Flow probes from the 3D printer

25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering

Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found

25.05.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>