Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Metallic molecules to nanotubes: Spread out!

24.02.2011
Rice University lab uses ruthenium complexes to dissolve nanotubes, add functionality

A lab at Rice University has stepped forward with an efficient method to disperse nanotubes in a way that preserves their unique properties -- and adds more.

The new technique allows inorganic metal complexes with different functionalities to remain in close contact with single-walled carbon nanotubes while keeping them separated in a solution.

That separation is critical to manufacturers who want to spin fiber from nanotubes, or mix them into composite materials for strength or to take advantage of their electrical properties. For starters, the ability to functionalize the nanotubes at the same time may advance imaging sensors, catalysis and solar-activated hydrogen fuel cells.

Better yet, a batch of nanotubes can apparently stay dispersed in water for weeks on end.

Keeping carbon nanotubes from clumping in aqueous solutions and combining them with molecules that add novel abilities have been flies in the ointment for scientists exploring the use of these highly versatile materials.

They've tried attaching organic molecules to the nanotubes' surfaces to add functionality as well as solubility. But while these techniques can separate nanotubes from one another, they take a toll on the nanotubes' electronic, thermal and mechanical properties.

Angel Marti, a Rice assistant professor of chemistry and bioengineering and a Norman Hackerman-Welch Young Investigator, and his students reported this month in the Royal Society of Chemistry journal Chemical Communications that ruthenium polypyridyl complexes are highly effective at dispersing nanotubes in water efficiently and for long periods. Ruthenium is a rare metallic element.

One key is having just the right molecule for the job. Marti and his team created ruthenium complexes by combining the element with ligands, stable molecules that bind to metal ions. The resulting molecular complex is part hydrophobic (the ligands) and part hydrophilic (the ruthenium). The ligands strongly bind to nanotubes while the attached ruthenium molecules interact with water to maintain the tubes in solution and keep them apart from one another.

Another key turned out to be moderation.

Originally, Marti said, he and co-authors Disha Jain and Avishek Saha weren't out to solve a problem that has boggled chemists for decades, but their willingness to "do something crazy" paid off big-time. Jain is a former postdoctoral researcher in Marti's lab, and Saha is a graduate student.

The researchers were eyeing ruthenium complexes as part of a study to track amyloid deposits associated with Alzheimer's disease. "We started to wonder what would happen if we modified the metal complex so it could bind to a nanotube," Marti said. "That would provide solubility, individualization, dispersion and functionality."

It did, but not at first. "Avishek put this together with purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (created via Rice's HiPco process) and sonicated. Absolutely nothing happened. The nanotubes didn't get into solution -- they just clumped at the bottom.

"That was very weird, but that's how science works -- some things you think are good ideas never work."

Saha removed the liquid and left the clumped nanotubes at the bottom of the centrifuge tube. "So I said, 'Well, why don't you do something crazy. Just add water to that, and with the little bit of ruthenium that might remain there, try to do the reaction.' He did that, and the solution turned black."

A low concentration of ruthenium did the trick. "We found out that 0.05 percent of the ruthenium complex is the optimum concentration to dissolve nanotubes," Marti said. Further experimentation showed that simple ruthenium complexes alone did not work. The molecule requires its hydrophobic ligand tail, which seeks to minimize its exposure to water by binding with nanotubes. "That's the same thing nanotubes want to do, so it's a favorable relationship," he said.

Marti also found the nanotubes' natural fluorescence unaffected by the ruthenium complexes. "Even though they've been purified, which can introduce defects, they still exhibit very good fluorescence," he said.

He said that certain ruthenium complexes have the ability to stay in an excited state for a long time -- about 600 nanoseconds, or 100 times longer than normal organic molecules. "It means the probability that it will transfer an electron is high. That's convenient for energy transfer applications, which are important for imaging," he said.

That nanotubes stay suspended for a long time should catch the eye of manufacturers who use them in bulk. "They should stay separated for weeks without problems," Marti said. "We have solutions that have been sitting for months without any signs of crashing."

The Welch Foundation supported the research.

Read the abstract at http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2011/CC/C0CC05295G

Download the Chemical Communications cover image at http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticlePDF/2011/CC/C1CC90010B/2011-02-07?page=Search

Located in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation's top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. A Tier One research university known for its "unconventional wisdom," Rice has schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and offers its 3,485 undergraduates and 2,275 graduate students a wide range of majors. Rice has the sixth-largest endowment per student among American private research universities and is rated No. 4 for Ïbest value among private universities by Kiplinger's Personal Finance. Its undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is less than 6-to-1. With a residential college system that builds close-knit and diverse communities and collaborative culture, Rice has been ranked No. 1 for best quality of life multiple times by the Princeton Review.

David Ruth | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rice.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

nachricht Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>