Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Mechanism of an enzyme for biofuel production

29.07.2015

Missing link in microbial cellulose decomposition

A University of Tokyo research group has revealed for the first time the three-dimensional structure and mechanism of action of a key enzyme of bio-fuel production, cellobionic acid phosphorylase (CBAP). This result is important basic information for developing the technology to make bio-fuel and other chemical products from biomass.


*The three-dimensional structure of cellobionic acid phopshorylase. © 2015 Shinya Fushinobu.

It has been long thought that hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases) were the main contributors to microbial degradation of cellulose. Recently, the existence of oxidative cellulose-degrading enzymes that dramatically increase the activity efficiency of cellulases have been noted.

When these enzymes degrade cellulose, cellobionic acid is produced. However, it was completely unknown how the cellulolytic microbes further metabolize this compound.

In 2013, one of the members of the research group, Associate Professor Hiroyuki Nakai at the Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, discovered a new enzyme, cellobionic acid phosphorylase (CBAP).

CBAP catalyzes the degradation of cellobionic acid to produce compounds that are prone to further metabolism and fermentation. Therefore, this enzyme is a missing link between the oxidative cellulose degradation and bioethanol fermentation pathways in microorganisms. However, the three dimensional structure of the enzyme and the mechanism by which it degraded cellobionic acid remained unknown.

In this latest research, the research group lead by Professor Shinya Fushinobu at the University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, used X-ray crystallography to reveal the three-dimensional structure of CBAP isolated from marine bacteria. In addition, the structure of CBAP in complex with cellobionic acid was determined (figure), and the reaction mechanism for decomposing cellobionic acid was revealed.

“This research is extremely interesting from a scientific perspective, but could also contribute to the development of biorefinery technologies that produce biofuels such as ethanol and other useful compounds via biomass degradation by microbes,” says Professor Fushinobu.

*Image
Two cellobionic acid phosphorylases molecules pair up to create a dimer. The colored left half and the gray right half are each one enzyme molecule. Cellobionic acid and sulfuric acid ions (a compound similar to phosphoric acid) bound to cellobionic acid phosphorylase are expressed as spheres in the figure.

Paper
Young-Woo Nam, Takanori Nihira, Takatoshi Arakawa, Yuka Saito, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Hiroyuki Nakai, and Shinya Fushinobu, "Crystal structure and substrate recognition of cellobionic acid phosphorylase playing a key role in oxidative cellulose degradation by microbes", The Journal of Biological Chemistry Vol. 290, No. 30, pg 18281-18292, doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.664664.


Associated links
UTokyo Research article

Euan McKay | ResearchSea
Further information:
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Warming ponds could accelerate climate change
21.02.2017 | University of Exeter

nachricht An alternative to opioids? Compound from marine snail is potent pain reliever
21.02.2017 | University of Utah

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Impacts of mass coral die-off on Indian Ocean reefs revealed

21.02.2017 | Earth Sciences

Novel breast tomosynthesis technique reduces screening recall rate

21.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Use your Voice – and Smart Homes will “LISTEN”

21.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>