Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New Mathematical Model Evaluates Efficiency of E. Coli

06.02.2009
The bacterium E. coli, one of the best-studied single-celled organisms around, is a master of industrial efficiency. But how good is it? Weizmann Institute researchers developed a mathematical model – which uses only five simple equations – to check the efficiency of these complex systems.

The bacterium Escherichia coli, one of the best-studied single-celled organisms around, is a master of industrial efficiency. This bacterium can be thought of as a factory with just one product: itself.

It exists to make copies of itself, and its business model is to make them at the lowest possible cost, with the greatest possible efficiency. Efficiency, in the case of a bacterium, can be defined by the energy and resources it uses to maintain its plant and produce new cells, versus the time it expends on the task.

Dr. Tsvi Tlusty and research student Arbel Tadmor of the Weizmann Institute of Science’s Physics of Complex Systems Department developed a mathematical model for evaluating the efficiency of these microscopic production plants. Their model, which appeared in the online journal PLoS Computational Biology, uses only five remarkably simple equations to check the efficiency of these complex factory systems.

The equations look at two components of the protein production process: ribosomes (the machinery in which proteins are produced) and RNA polymerase (an enzyme that copies the genetic code for protein production onto strands of messenger RNA for further translation into proteins). RNA polymerase is thus a sort of work “supervisor” that keeps protein production running smoothly, checks the specs, and sets the pace. The first equation assesses the production rate of the ribosomes themselves; the second, the protein output of the ribosomes; the third, the production of RNA polymerase. The last two equations deal with how the cell assigns the available ribosomes and polymerases to the various tasks of creating other proteins, more ribosomes, or more polymerases.

The theoretical model was tested in real bacteria. Do bacteria “weigh” the costs of constructing and maintaining their protein production machinery against the gains to be had from being able to produce more proteins in less time? What happens when a critical piece of equipment is in short supply – say, a main ribosome protein? Tlusty and Tadmor found that their model was able to accurately predict how an E. coli would change its production strategy to maximize efficiency following disruptions in the work flow caused by experimental changes to genes with important cellular functions.

What’s the optimum? The model predicts that a bacterium, for instance, should have seven genes for ribosome production. It turns out that that’s exactly the number an average E. coli cell has. Bacteria having five or nine get a much lower efficiency rating. Evolution, in other words, is a master efficiency expert for living factories, meeting any challenges that arise as production conditions change.

Dr. Tsvi Tlusty’s research is supported by the Clore Center for Biological Physics.

For the scientific paper, please see: www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1000038

The Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, is one of the world's top-ranking multidisciplinary research institutions. Noted for its wide-ranging exploration of the natural and exact sciences, the Institute is home to 2,600 scientists, students, technicians, and supporting staff. Institute research efforts include the search for new ways of fighting disease and hunger, examining leading questions in mathematics and computer science, probing the physics of matter and the universe, creating novel materials, and developing new strategies for protecting the environment.

Jennifer Manning | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.acwis.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth
09.12.2016 | Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

nachricht Plant-based substance boosts eyelash growth
09.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electron highway inside crystal

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.

Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth

09.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon

09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution

09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>