Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Massachussetts General-developed device monitors key step in development of tumor metastases

19.08.2014

A microfluidic device developed at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) may help study key steps in the process by which cancer cells break off from a primary tumor to invade other tissues and form metastases.

In their report published in Nature Materials, the investigators describe an stands for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a fundamental change in cellular characteristics that has been associated with the ability of tumor cells to migrate and invade other sites in the body. Therapies that target this process may be able to slow or halt tumor metastasis.


As cells undergoing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition move from left to right through the EMT chip, those expressing mesenchymal markers (red) break away and move independently from other cells, while cells expressing epithelial markers (green) continue to move as a collective front.

Credit: BioMEMS Resource Center, Massachusetts General Hospital

"This device gives us a platform to be used in testing and comparing compounds to block or delay the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, potentially slowing the progression of cancer," says Daniel Irimia, MD, PhD, associate director of the BioMEMS Resource Center in the MGH Department of Surgery.

Normally a stage in embryonic development, EMT is important during normal wound healing and also appears to take place when epithelial cells lining bodily surfaces and cavities become malignant. Instead of adhering to each other tightly in layers, cells that have undergone EMT gain the ability to separate out, move to other parts of the body and implant themselves into the new sites. Cells that have transitioned into a mesenchymal state appear to be more resistant to cancer therapies or other measures designed to induce cell death.

The device developed at the MGH allows investigator to follow the movement of cells passing through a comb-like array of micropillars, which temporarily separates cells that are adhering to each other. To establish baseline characteristics of noncancerous cells, the investigators first studied the passage of normal epithelial cells through the array. They observed that those cells moved at the same speed as neighboring cells, reconnecting when they come into contact with each other into multicellular sheets that repeatedly break apart and reseal. Tumor cells, however, passed quickly and more directly through the device and did not interact with nearby cells.

When cells in which the process of EMT had been initiated by genetic manipulation were observed passing through the device, at first they migrated collectively. But soon after encountering the first micropillars, many cells broke away from the collective front and migrated individually for the rest of their trajectory.

Some cells appeared to undergo the opposite transition, reverting from individual migration back to collective migration. Subsequent analysis revealed that the slower moving cells that continued migrating together expressed epithelial markers, while the faster moving, independently migrating cells expressed mesenchymal markers. The individually cells migrating also appeared to be more resistant to treatment with chemotherapy drugs.

A particular advantage of the EMT chip is the ability to observe how the behavior of a population of cells changes over time. "Instead of providing a snapshot of cells or tissues at a specific moment, as traditional histology studies do, the new chip can capture the changing dynamics of individual or collective cellular migration," explains Irimia, an assistant professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School.

"In the controlled environment of the EMT chip, these processes resemble such phase transitions as the change from solid to liquid that occurs with melting. Analogies with well studied physical processes are very useful for summarizing the complex EMT process into a few parameters. These parameters are very helpful when making comparisons between different cell types and studying the contribution of various biological processes to EMT. They are also useful when comparing different chemicals to discover new compounds to block or delay EMT"

###

Ian Wong, PhD, formerly of the BioMEMS Resource Center and now at the Brown University School of Engineering, is lead author of the Nature Materials paper. Additional co-authors are Elisabeth Wong, Sinem Park, PhD, and Mehmet Toner, PhD, BioMEMS Resource Center; and Sarah Javaid, PhD, and Daniel Haber, MD, MGH Cancer Center. The study was supported by grants from the Merck Fellowship of the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and National Institutes of Health grants CA129933, EB002503, CA135601 and GM092804.

Massachusetts General Hospital, founded in 1811, is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. The MGH conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the United States, with an annual research budget of more than $785 million and major research centers in HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular research, cancer, computational and integrative biology, cutaneous biology, human genetics, medical imaging, neurodegenerative disorders, regenerative medicine, reproductive biology, systems biology, transplantation biology and photomedicine.

Katie Marquedant | Eurek Alert!

Further reports about: Cancer EMT epithelial mesenchymal metastases migrating processes transition

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nanoparticle Exposure Can Awaken Dormant Viruses in the Lungs
16.01.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
13.01.2017 | Princeton University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

Im Focus: Newly proposed reference datasets improve weather satellite data quality

UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration

"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...

Im Focus: Repairing defects in fiber-reinforced plastics more efficiently

Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.

Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Multiregional brain on a chip

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

New technology enables 5-D imaging in live animals, humans

16.01.2017 | Information Technology

Researchers develop environmentally friendly soy air filter

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>