Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Map of Herpes Virus Protein Suggests a New Drug Therapy

07.07.2010
The mechanism by which a herpes virus invades cells has remained a mystery to scientists seeking to thwart this family of viruses.

New research funded by the National Institutes of Health and published online in advance of print in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology reveals the unusual structure of the protein complex that allows a herpes virus to invade cells. This detailed map of a key piece of the herpes virus “cell-entry machinery” gives scientists a new target for antiviral drugs.

“Most viruses need cell-entry proteins called fusogens in order to invade cells. We have known that the herpes virus fusogen does not act alone and that a complex of two other viral cell-entry proteins is always required. We expected that this complex was also a fusogen, but after determining the structure of this key protein complex, we found that it does not resemble other known fusogens,” said senior author Ekaterina Heldwein, PhD, assistant professor in the molecular biology and microbiology department at Tufts University School of Medicine.

“This unexpected result leads us to believe that this protein complex is not a fusogen itself but that it regulates the fusogen. We also found that certain antibodies interfere with the ability of this protein complex to bind to the fusogen, evidence that antiviral drugs that target this interaction could prevent viral infection,” Heldwein continued. Heldwein is also a member of the biochemistry and molecular microbiology program faculties at the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts.

“Katya Heldwein’s work has resulted in a map of the protein complex needed to trigger herpes virus infection. The NIH Director's New Innovator Awards are designed to support such breakthroughs. This research not only adds to what we know about how herpes viruses infect mammalian cells, but also sets the stage for new therapeutics that restrict herpes virus’s access to the cell,” said Jeremy M. Berg, PhD, director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the National Institutes of Health.

“We hope that determining the structure of this essential piece of the herpes virus cell-entry machinery will help us answer some of the many questions about how herpes virus initiates infection. Knowing the structures of cell-entry proteins will help us find the best strategy for interfering with this pervasive family of viruses,” said first author Tirumala K. Chowdary, PhD, a postdoctoral associate in the department of molecular biology and microbiology at TUSM and member of Heldwein’s lab.

Currently, there is no cure for herpes viruses. Upon infection, the viruses remain in the body for life and can stay inactive for long periods of time. When active, however, different herpes viruses can cause cold sores, blindness, encephalitis, or cancers. More than half of Americans are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which causes cold sores, by the time they reach their 20s. Currently, about one in six Americans is infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the virus responsible for genital herpes. Complications of HSV-2, a sexually-transmitted disease, include recurrent painful genital sores, psychological distress, and, if transmitted from mother to child, potentially fatal infections in newborn infants.

Heldwein teamed up with colleagues at University of Pennsylvania and used x-ray crystallography along with cell microscopy techniques to study the structure and function of this cell-entry protein complex in HSV-2. Heldwein is currently developing a molecular movie that illustrates how herpes virus enters the cell.

Additional authors are Tina Cairns, PhD, a research specialist; Doina Atanasiu, a research associate; and Gary Cohen, PhD, professor and chair, all in the department of microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine; and Roselyn Eisenberg, PhD, professor in the department of microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.

This work was funded by the Office of the Director of the National Institutes of Health, through a New Innovator Award in 2007 to Ekaterina Heldwein. The New Innovator Awards, part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research initiative, are awarded to support early-career scientists who take innovative – and potentially transformative – approaches to major challenges in biomedical research. The work was also funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, and the Pew Scholar Program in Biomedical Sciences.

Chowdary TK, Cairns TM, Atanasiu D, Cohen GH, Eisenberg RJ, Heldwein EE. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 2010. “Crystal structure of the conserved herpesvirus fusion regulator complex gH-gL.” Published online July 4, 2010, doi: 10.1038/nsmb.1837

About Tufts University School of Medicine and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences

Tufts University School of Medicine and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts University are international leaders in innovative medical education and advanced research. The School of Medicine and the Sackler School are renowned for excellence in education in general medicine, biomedical sciences, special combined degree programs in business, health management, public health, bioengineering and international relations, as well as basic and clinical research at the cellular and molecular level. Ranked among the top in the nation, the School of Medicine is affiliated with six major teaching hospitals and more than 30 health care facilities. Tufts University School of Medicine and the Sackler School undertake research that is consistently rated among the highest in the nation for its effect on the advancement of medical science.

Siobhan Gallagher | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.tufts.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Building a brain, cell by cell: Researchers make a mini neuron network (of two)
23.05.2018 | Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo

nachricht Research reveals how order first appears in liquid crystals
23.05.2018 | Brown University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Building a brain, cell by cell: Researchers make a mini neuron network (of two)

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

One-way roads for spin currents

23.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

A simple mechanism could have been decisive for the development of life

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>