The pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus causes vomiting and diarrhoea as well as systemic and local infections such as sepsis or eye infections.
A team from the Vetmeduni Vienna has now reported for the first time that B. cereus, following contact with certain antibiotics, can switch into a special slowed-down mode. The bacteria then form small colony variants (SVCs) that are difficult to diagnose and almost impossible to treat with certain antibiotics. This newly discovered mechanism may provide an alternative explanation for antibiotic resistance. The results were published in the journal mBio.
Light micrograph of B. cereus in a small colony variant.
Photo: Markus Kranzler/Vetmeduni Vienna
The bacterium B. cereus had so far been considered to be exclusively endospore-forming. In response to harsh conditions, the bacteria form protective endospores enabling them to remain dormant for extended periods. When conditions are more favourable, the endospores reactivate to become fully functioning bacteria.
Elrike Frenzel, Markus Kranzler and Monika Ehling-Schulz of the Institute of Microbiology at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna have now shown for the first time that B. cereus has an alternative lifestyle in the form of so called small colony variants (SCVs). In B. cereus these SCVs form in response to exposure with aminoglycoside antibiotics. SCVs grow slower than the original form of B. cereus. They have an altered metabolism and are resistant to those antibiotics which triggered this state, namely aminoglycosides.
“The bacterium protects itself against the harmful effects of the antibiotics by forming these Small Colony Variants. But B. cereus is usually treated with exactly those antibiotics which induce the SCV state. If an antibiotic triggers the formation of SCVs, it also triggers resistance,” first author Frenzel explains.
Rethinking therapy and diagnostics
The mechanism discovered by Frenzel, Kranzler and Ehling-Schulz is of enormous significance in clinical practice. Traditional diagnostic methods are based on the identification of metabolic features of B. cereus. These tests will not detect SCVs, however, as they have a slower, altered metabolism. This may result in incorrect antibiotic therapies or even failed diagnoses. Study author Frenzel sees molecular-based diagnostics as the only way to diagnose this form of B. cereus.
Treating B. cereus infections using only aminoglycoside antibiotics could bear the risk of a prolonged infection. SCVs grow more slowly, but they still produce toxins that are harmful to the body. “In this case, a combination therapy with other antibiotic groups is advisable,” Frenzel recommends.
New molecular mechanism of SCV formation
One species of bacteria that has been known for years to be a multiresistant hospital pathogen and which poses a life-threatening risk for immunocompromised individuals in particular is Staphylococcus aureus. Those bacteria also form SCVs, but unlike B. cereus they are capable of reverting to its original state. For B. cereus, the adaptation to a small colony variant appears to be final. “We believe that the SCV formation in B. cereus functions differently than in S. aureus,” says study author Ehling-Schulz.
Environmental niche to cope with stress
“The ability to form SCVs appears to be of environmental significance for the bacteria,” Frenzel believes. “This alternative lifestyle allows the bacteria to avoid threatening stress factors such as antibiotic exposure. B. cereus are soil-dwelling, and other microorganism in the soil produce antibiotics. Here, too, the formation of SCVs would be an advantage for the bacteria.”
Der Artikel „The Endospore-Forming Pathogen Bacillus cereus Exploits a Small Colony Variant-Based Diversification Strategy in Response to Aminoglycoside Exposure“ von Elrike Frenzel, Markus Kranzler, Timo D. Stark, Thomas Hofmann und Monika Ehling-Schulz wurde im Fachjournal mBio veröffentlicht. DOI:10.1128/mBio.01172-15
About the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna
The University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria is one of the leading academic and research institutions in the field of Veterinary Sciences in Europe. About 1,300 employees and 2,300 students work on the campus in the north of Vienna which also houses five university clinics and various research sites. Outside of Vienna the university operates Teaching and Research Farms. http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at
Prof. Monika Ehling-Schulz
Unit of Functional Microbiology
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 664 602576397
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-1151
Heike Hochhauser | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Transport of molecular motors into cilia
28.03.2017 | Aarhus University
Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias
28.03.2017 | University of California - Riverside
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
29.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
29.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences