Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Keeping traffic moving

23.05.2011
An enzyme helps control the extension of cellular tendrils by regulating the delivery of supplies needed for growth

The body of the adult fruit fly is covered with hair-like bristles (Fig. 1) that act as sensory organs for detecting tactile stimuli. Each one consists of a single cell that has gradually elongated over the course of pupal development, reinforced by bundles of actin protein filaments.


Figure 1: An electron microscope image of a sensory bristle from the body of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Copyright : 2011 Tetsuhisa Otani

The signaling protein IKKå helps to regulate this process by controlling the organization of these actin bundles, but a recent study from Shigeo Hayashi and colleagues at the RIKEN Center for Development Biology in Kobe has revealed that IKKå also promotes bristle growth by managing the trafficking of cellular cargoes (1).

Initial experiments by Hayashi and team showed that activated IKKå is primarily found at the tips of developing bristles, where growth-associated cargoes are most likely to be unloaded. “Membranes and associated proteins are water-insoluble and thus do not easily diffuse to distant sites, and one model is that distal trafficking actively delivers such insoluble materials as packages,” explains Hayashi.

Membrane-enclosed bubbles known as endosomes are a core component in this process, using so-called motor proteins to travel along routes defined by a microscopic ‘railway’ of fibers known as microtubules. The researchers found that this trafficking is severely disrupted in the absence of IKKå, with endosomes remaining trapped at the ends of the bristle rather than being distributed throughout the cell.

Hayashi and colleagues determined that IKKå interacts with a protein called Nuf, which links the motor protein Dynein with a key endosome-associated protein and thus contributes to directional transport of cargoes toward the tip of the growing bristle. Upon arrival at the tip, IKKå-mediated inactivation of Nuf sends the newly emptied endosomes on a return trip, thereby completing a ‘recycling’ process. “Such endosomal movement occurs in other cell types, but the shape of bristles makes this shuttling very prominent,” says Hayashi. “I think this is a very good example of how a highly specialized cell and its shape can reveal a mechanism of general significance.”

Many other cells grow in a similar fashion, ranging from the tiny branches that help connect neurons to the hairs on plant roots that assist in water absorption, and Hayashi speculates that similar regulatory mechanisms may also operate in these contexts. Moving forward, he and his colleagues will further explore the apparently central coordinating role of IKKå. “We are currently studying actin as a target,” says Hayashi, “and we are also studying upstream regulators of IKKå, hoping to uncover a comprehensive view of this signaling pathway.”

The corresponding author for this highlight is based at the Laboratory for Morphogenetic Signaling, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology

Journal information

(1) Otani, T., Oshima, K., Onishi, S., Takeda, M., Shinmyozu, K., Yonemura, S. & Hayashi, S. IKKå regulates cell elongation through recycling endosome shuttling. Developmental Cell 20, 219–232 (2011).

gro-pr | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.riken.jp
http://www.researchsea.com

Further reports about: RIKEN cell type motor protein sensory organ synthetic biology

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute

nachricht Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>