Influenza A viral infection can lead to primary pneumonia and, later on, to serious complications including secondary bacterial pneumonia and sepsis. Post-influenza bacterial superinfections that occur during seasonal epidemics and pandemics are of great concern to human health and impose a considerable socio-economic burden.
"It is therefore critical that we reach a better understanding of the causes of and potential treatments for post-influenza bacterial superinfection," says corresponding author François Trottein.
"Mouse studies have revealed that impairment of the host innate immune defense, as well as lung damage caused by the virus are cardinal features of bacterial superinfection," says Trottein. The authors tested the hypothesis that interleukin-22, an important cytokine implicated in mucosal immunity, inflammation and tissue repair, might play an important role during influenza.
The authors show that several cell types belonging to the innate immune system produce interleukin-22 soon after infection. They also demonstrate that the lack of interleukin-22 aggravates the pathogenesis that develops in the lungs and in particular exacerbates epithelial damage caused by the virus. Furthermore, endogenous interleukin-22 displays a protective role during secondary bacterial (pneumococcus) infection in the mouse system.
Although the mechanisms sustaining the protective effect of interleukin-22 are not yet fully elucidated, the authors speculate that its beneficial effect is due to its role in the maintenance of epithelial integrity.
"If it works as well in humans, the production of interleukin-22 could confer a substantial benefit on patients having flu," says Trottein.
A copy of the article can be found online at http://bit.ly/asmtip0513b.
(S. Ivanov, J. Renneson, F. Trottein, et al. Interleukin-22 reduces lung inflammation during influenza A virus infection and protects against secondary bacterial infection. J. Virol. June 2013; 87:12 6911-6924. Published ahead of print17 April 2013. doi:10.1128/JVI.02943-12)
The Journal of Virology is a publication of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). The ASM is the largest single life science society, composed of over 39,000 scientists and health professionals. Its mission is to advance the microbiological sciences as a vehicle for understanding life processes and to apply and communicate this knowledge for the improvement of health and environmental and economic well-being worldwide.
Jim Sliwa | EurekAlert!
Oestrogen regulates pathological changes of bones via bone lining cells
28.07.2017 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien
Programming cells with computer-like logic
27.07.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard
Spectrally narrow x-ray pulses may be “sharpened” by purely mechanical means. This sounds surprisingly, but a team of theoretical and experimental physicists developed and realized such a method. It is based on fast motions, precisely synchronized with the pulses, of a target interacting with the x-ray light. Thereby, photons are redistributed within the x-ray pulse to the desired spectral region.
A team of theoretical physicists from the MPI for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg has developed a novel method to intensify the spectrally broad x-ray...
Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. This new tool could be used for precise sensing and in microscopy.
Microwaves, heat radiation, light and X-radiation are examples for electromagnetic waves. Many applications require to focus the electromagnetic fields to...
Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers
Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...
Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.
At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...
3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects
A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...
26.07.2017 | Event News
21.07.2017 | Event News
19.07.2017 | Event News
28.07.2017 | Health and Medicine
28.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
28.07.2017 | Life Sciences