The research, published today (10 June) in the journal Nature Cell Biology shows that the controlled release of a specific molecule, called miR-675, slows down growth of the placenta before birth.
RNA molecules are best known as the intermediary between the cell's DNA and the making of proteins necessary for cell function. However, there are also many RNA molecules with functions other than encoding proteins. Babraham Institute scientists are involved in researching the role of these noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (a type of short noncoding RNA molecule) which are important for regulating cell development and function.
The noncoding RNA H19 is one of the most abundant RNA molecules found in mammals but until now its function was unknown. This study, in collaboration with academics in France, the USA and Belgium, is the first to show that a microRNA called miR-675 is 'cut out' and released from the longer H19 RNA in the placenta and that this limits placental growth.
Dr Andrew Keniry from the Babraham Institute who is lead author explained, "The function of the H19 noncoding RNA has proven elusive for many years. We have shown that it appears to act as an inert molecule used to store the functional miR-675 until it is required by the cell to slow placental growth. This is a very exciting finding and reveals a new purpose for noncoding RNA. It is also intriguing that the release of miR-675 is controlled by a stress-response protein, suggesting this may be a mechanism the developing embryo can use to regulate its growth in the womb."
Professor Wolf Reik, senior author of the paper and a Group Leader at the Babraham Institute, which receives strategic funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) said, "It's interesting to see how the growth of the placenta can be regulated in this flexible way before birth. Perhaps there are environmental signals and influences from the mother's diet on the growth of the placenta and hence the healthy baby. It's also fascinating how an RNA that is so abundant in the cell can be a quick-release reservoir of a growth regulating small RNA, and this may be generally important for how cell growth is regulated by the environment."
The Babraham Institute undertakes world-leading life sciences research to generate new knowledge of biological mechanisms underpinning ageing, development and the maintenance of health. Professor Michael Wakelam, Director of the Babraham Institute, commented, "This research gives a new insight into how placental growth can be regulated, which is important for the health of the baby and in later life, supporting BBSRC's mission to drive advances in fundamental bioscience for better health and wellbeing." In addition to the BBSRC, this research was supported by the Wellcome Trust, the MRC, the EU, the Cambridge Commonwealth Trust and the Centre for Trophoblast Research.
Dr Anja Drozd | EurekAlert!
'Lipid asymmetry' plays key role in activating immune cells
20.02.2018 | Biophysical Society
New printing technique uses cells and molecules to recreate biological structures
20.02.2018 | Queen Mary University of London
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.
But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...
Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.
The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters
Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
20.02.2018 | Life Sciences
20.02.2018 | Medical Engineering
20.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy