Sulfomucins, one of two primary types of acidomucins secreted by intestinal goblet cells, provide crucial protection to the intestinal mucosa. Therefore, it is not surprising that a loss of intestinal sulfomucins is associated with both inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer. However, the extent to which pathways involved in sulfomucin production are responsive to signals emanating directly from intestinal microbes or cues originating from host inflammatory cells is not known.
The research team at the University of Illinois compared the effects of bacterial flagellin to the mucogenic cytokine IL-13, and the proinflammatory cytokine TNFƒÑ on expression of genes encoding the Golgi sulfotransferases involved in addition of sulfate groups to mucin precursors and sulfomucin production. They observed high induction of carbohydrate (N-acetyl-glucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 5 (CHST5) as early as 12 h after treatment with IL-13. Flagellin, IL-13 and TNF all, on the other hand, induced expression of the other sulfotransferase galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 2 (GAL3ST2). The observed induction of sulfotransferases was consistent with increased sulfomucin production by LS174T cells in response to IL-13 and flagellin, indicating that sulfotransferases and sulfomucin synthesis can be differentially modulated by particular inflammatory signals.
Galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 2 is thought to be the sulfotransferase responsible for sulfate addition to the C-3 position of galactose in human colonic mucins. On the other hand, CHST5 is the most likely candidate for sulfation of the C-6 position of N-acetylglucosamine. GAL3ST2 expression was enhanced in LS174T cells following treatment with flagellin, IL-13 and TNFƒÑ, indicating that increased mucin sulfation at the C-3 position of galactose might be a common response to inflammatory stimuli.
Although cautious to point out that the present study derives from a well-differentiated, but transformed goblet cell line, Professor Gaskins said that "the data implicate biosynthesis of sulfomucins as a potential therapeutic target for the restoration of barrier function in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders. Recent studies provide strong evidence that both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), the two primary types of IBD, result from multifactorial interactions among genetic, environmental and immunological factors that lead to a dysregulation of the innate immune response to the intestinal microbiota in genetically predisposed individuals."
The results with TNF are of particular interest because of its association with IBD and the alterations in mucin sulfation seen with active IBD. As IBD is characterized by dysregulated immune responsiveness, it may be that individuals with IBD fail to respond appropriately to TNFƒÑ and, hence, fail to increase the production of sulfomucins. However, much additional work will be needed to better understand the mechanisms by which flagellin, IL-13, and TNF enhance expression of specific sulfotransferases and sulfomucin production.
Dr. Steve Goodman, Editor-in-Chief of Experimental Biology and Medicine said "Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two primary types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), afflict 0.1-0.5% of individuals in Western countries with approximately 1 million Americans suffering from the disease at a cost of over $2 billion. This impressive study by Gaskins and colleagues identifies sulfomucins as potential targets for future therapies for chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders".
Experimental Biology and Medicine is the journal of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine. To learn about the benefits of society membership visit http://www.sebm.org. If you are interested in publishing in the journal please visit http://ebm.rsmjournals.com.
Dr. H. Rex Gaskins | EurekAlert!
New type of photosynthesis discovered
17.06.2018 | Imperial College London
New ID pictures of conducting polymers discover a surprise ABBA fan
17.06.2018 | University of Warwick
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...
Water molecules exist in two different forms with almost identical physical properties. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in separating the two forms to show that they can exhibit different chemical reactivities. These results were reported by researchers from the University of Basel and their colleagues in Hamburg in the scientific journal Nature Communications.
From a chemical perspective, water is a molecule in which a single oxygen atom is linked to two hydrogen atoms. It is less well known that water exists in two...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
15.06.2018 | Materials Sciences
15.06.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
15.06.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering