Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Important adjustment process between the sense of balance and the eyes deciphered

24.06.2011
Our eyes must be tightly coupled with our sense of balance to provide sharp and jitter-free images.

If the adjustment is disturbed, our view is blurred and we get dizzy. Scientists at the Bernstein Center Munich, the LMU München and the Integrated Research and Treatment Center IFB-LMU have now deciphered an important step of this interaction; whether certain neurons transmit information about the start or the duration of the movement depends entirely on a single type of membrane channel and the cells’ interconnections. Optimized therapies against vertigo and the development of jitter-free camera systems could benefit from this research.

Just three steps in the brain are necessary for processing data from the vestibular system and transferring them to the eye muscles. This allows the visual system to adjust to head movements within a fraction of a second. While in the first and last step, information is mainly transferred from the sensors and to the muscles, respectively, the second step is where the essential processing takes place. Scientists found that neurons with different properties are involved in this step: one type is only active during the initiation of a movement, while the other type sends signals during the entire movement. Recently, Dr. Stefan Glasauer, researcher at the Bernstein Center Munich and at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and his PhD student Christian Rössert, in collaboration with Prof. Hans Straka, Neurobiologist at the LMU, have found out why this is so. In their study, presented in the Journal of Neuroscience*, they used the already well-understood balance organ of grass frogs.

Based on experimental data, the scientists created computer simulations that reproduced the information processing of these nerve cells. “In the simulation, we can supply the cells with any combination of ion channels, connect them in any way, and measure their behavior,” explains Glasauer about the advantages of the models. And even more: “We can even make the simulated frog jump, in order to test its data processing," says Glasauer. First, the researchers examined in a simulated single cell the influence of certain membrane channels on the transmission of incoming stimuli. They found that cells with two different membrane channels have different functions: channels with the first type were suitable for the processing of the exact movement initiation time, while the other type discharged for the entire stimulus duration. In simulations with a number of nerve cells, Glasauer and Rössert found that the interconnection of the cells also plays an important role in processing. “The combination of experimental biology and modeling significantly helped in understanding essential basics of sensorimotor information processing,” says Glasauer. The results are also relevant for clinical and technical research.

Besides others, patients with cerebellar damage could benefit from these research results. The affected individuals have problems in compensating rapid head movements by appropriate eye movements, but no problems in compensating for smooth movements. This might be due to a deficit in one of the two cell types. The highly efficient neuronal processing could also serve as a model for jitter-free camera systems that are used, for example, in driver assistance systems of cars or helicopters.

*Original publication:
Rössert C, Moore L, Straka H, Glasauer S (2011), Cellular and network contributions to vestibular signal processing: impact of ion conductances, synaptic inhibition, and noise, J Neurosci, Volume 31, issue 23, 8359-8372

For further information please contact:

Dr. Stefan Glasauer
Bernstein Center Munich and
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Department of Neurology
Marchioninistr. 15,
81377 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-89-7095-4839
E-mail: sglasauer@nefo.med.uni-muenchen.de

Johannes Faber | idw
Further information:
http://www.bccn-munich.de
http://www.nncn.de
http://www.lmu.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists unlock ability to generate new sensory hair cells
22.02.2017 | Brigham and Women's Hospital

nachricht New insights into the information processing of motor neurons
22.02.2017 | Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Microhotplates for a smart gas sensor

22.02.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Scientists unlock ability to generate new sensory hair cells

22.02.2017 | Life Sciences

Prediction: More gas-giants will be found orbiting Sun-like stars

22.02.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>