Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Immunity restrained by ion influx

25.07.2011
A calcium-driven signaling pathway helps prevent immune cells from contributing to autoimmune disease

B cells maintain stockpiles of calcium ions (Ca2+), which are released during the course of the immune response. When the presence of a foreign antigen stimulates the B cell receptor (BCR) complex, these internal reserves of Ca2+ get released into the cell, subsequently triggering the opening of channels in the cell membrane that allow the entry of even more Ca2+.

Immunologists generally considered these ions as essential currency for many key cellular processes. “Ca2+ signaling in B cells is widely assumed to be responsible for functions including B cell development, immune response and antibody production,” says Yoshihiro Baba of the Immunology Frontier Research in Osaka University and formerly with the RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology in Yokohama. However, the direct effects of this bulk Ca2+ entry, also known as store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) influx, are poorly understood.

To examine the importance of this mechanism, Baba and colleagues genetically engineered mice whose B cells lack the genes encoding STIM1 or STIM2, two proteins involved with SOC influx1. Their results suggest that this pathway plays a far more narrowly defined role than was previously expected.

The researchers determined that these two proteins cooperatively contribute to the management of Ca2+ influx, and facilitate B cell proliferation following BCR-mediated signaling. However, they appear to have no role in the actual immune response, as mice with STIM1- and STIM2-deficient B cells were still capable of mounting an antibody response against foreign antigens.

On the other hand, both factors proved important for the function of regulatory B cells, which produce anti-inflammatory factors such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and help prevent the immune system from over-reacting or attacking host tissues. Without these STIM proteins, mouse B cells produced only minimal amounts of IL-10. Baba and colleagues determined that the absence of STIM1 and STIM2 greatly exacerbates the incidence and severity of inflammatory pathology in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Since the action of IL-10 suppresses a variety of autoimmune conditions, these findings may indicate a general mechanism that could be targeted for the treatment of such disorders. “Our study suggests that a failure to balance Ca2+ levels may lead to autoimmune disease. This is a very exciting finding,” says Baba.

He and his colleagues are now keen to better understand the Ca2+-dependent anti-inflammatory B cells. “We are trying to show when and where regulatory B cells function, and what cells are targeted by them,” he says, “and to understand what type of inflammation—chronic or acute—is sensitive to IL-10-producing B cells.”

The corresponding author for this highlight is based at the Laboratory for Lymphocyte Differentiation, RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology

gro-pr | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.riken.jp
http://www.researchsea.com

Further reports about: Allergy B cell receptor B cells IL-10 STIM1 STIM2 cellular process immune response immunity

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute

nachricht Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>