Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

How Immune Cells Destroy Cancer Cells – MDC Researchers Elucidate Mechanism

17.01.2012
Dr. Kathleen Anders and Professor Thomas Blankenstein of the Max Delbrück Center (MDC) Berlin-Buch and researchers of the Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope Cancer Center in Duarte, California, USA showed that drug-based cancer treatment and adoptive T cell therapy are both highly effective against large tumors.

However, the T cells not only kill cancer cells – they additionally destroy the tumor blood vessel system, thus impeding the supply of nutrients to the tumor. Consequently, “escapee” mutant tumor cells are eradicated that have become resistant to drug-based treatment and are responsible for tumor recurrence. (Cancer Cell, doi10.1016/j.ccr.2011.10.019)*.

The researchers transplanted tumor cells into mice that express SV40 large T antigen (Tag), the oncogene that is critical for tumor growth. The researchers were thus able to target and inactivate the oncogene using the antibiotic drug doxycycline (dox), which has an effect similar to modern drugs currently in clinical use. Since the oncogene is also present as antigen on the surface of the tumor cells, the researchers were also able to target these tumors with oncogene-specific T cells. Thus, for the first time the effect of the two completely different therapy approaches could be compared directly with each other.

Moreover, a special feature of the study was that the tumors in the mice were large – bigger than one centimeter and containing about one billion cancer cells, comparable to clinical-size tumors in patients. Only then, according to the researchers, is the development of the tumor tissue (tumor stroma), which also includes the tumor vasculature, complete. The tumor is then considered “established”. The aim of tumor therapy is to kill all cancer cells to prevent the recurrence of cancer disease.

The researchers showed in mice that the tumor is destroyed by the drug-mediated inactivation of the oncogene, but that the tumor vasculature and thus the blood supply of the tumor remains intact. In addition, due to a high mutation rate, some cancer cells become resistant to the drug and quickly generate new tumors despite continual administration of the anti-cancer drug.

Adoptive T-cell therapy, the researchers noted, is more effective in the mice in the long term, because it destroys the blood supply of the tumor. In addition, it evidently intercepts cancer cells that have altered their characteristics via mutations and thus escape drug treatment. In adoptive T-cell therapy, the researchers modulate the cytotoxic T cells (immune cells toxic for the cell) in the test tube in such a way that the T cells recognize certain features on the surface of cancer cells and specifically destroy the tumor cells. Then these primed immune cells are transferred back into the mice. The researchers point out that techniques to produce highly specialized T cells against human tumors have recently been developed following previous studies by Professor Blankenstein’s research group. Now it will be important to determine exactly how these immune cells can be used in future clinical trials.

The researchers hope that their insights in defining optimal conditions for T cell therapy may help improve future clinical trials and thus the treatment of cancer patients.

*Oncogene-targeting T cells reject large tumors, while oncogene inactivation selects escape variants in mouse models of cancer

Kathleen Anders1, Christian Buschow2, Andreas Herrmann3, Ana Milojkovic4, Christoph Loddenkemper5, Thomas Kammertoens2, Peter Daniel4, Hua Yu3, Jehad Charo1, Thomas Blankenstein1,2,*

1Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin, Germany
2Institute of Immunology, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, 12200 Berlin, Germany
3Cancer Immunotherapeutics & Tumor Immunology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA 91010 USA
4Department of Hematology, Oncology and Tumor Immunology, Charité, Campus Berlin Buch, 13092, Berlin, Germany

5Institute of Pathology, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, 12200, Berlin, Germany

Contact:
Barbara Bachtler
Press Department
Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch
in the Helmholtz Association
Robert-Rössle-Straße 10
13125 Berlin
Phone: +49 (0) 30 94 06 - 38 96
Fax: +49 (0) 30 94 06 - 38 33
e-mail: presse@mdc-berlin.de

Barbara Bachtler | Max-Delbrück-Centrum
Further information:
http://www.mdc-berlin.de/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Molecular evolution: How the building blocks of life may form in space
26.04.2018 | American Institute of Physics

nachricht Multifunctional bacterial microswimmer able to deliver cargo and destroy itself
26.04.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Why we need erasable MRI scans

New technology could allow an MRI contrast agent to 'blink off,' helping doctors diagnose disease

Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a widely used medical tool for taking pictures of the insides of our body. One way to make MRI scans easier to read is...

Im Focus: BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.

Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

World's smallest optical implantable biodevice

26.04.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Molecular evolution: How the building blocks of life may form in space

26.04.2018 | Life Sciences

First Li-Fi-product with technology from Fraunhofer HHI launched in Japan

26.04.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>