When the body’s own cells turn into ticking time bombs, as in cases of viral infection or cancerous transformation, a mechanism known as ‘cross-presentation’ enables the immune system’s dendritic cells (DCs) to sound the alarm.
Figure 1: Compared to untreated dendritic cells (top), cells treated with an HSP90 inhibitor (radicicol) (bottom) tend to retain a larger percentage of the antigen ovalbumin (red; left) within membrane bound endosomes (green; middle). Endosomes are labeled with a stain that marks the membrane protein PKH67. Copyright : 2012 the National Academy of Sciences
“Dendritic cells first internalize cancerous or virus-infected cells through a mechanism called phagocytosis, and then process cellular antigens into short peptides,” explains Heiichiro Udono of the RIKEN Center for Allergy and Immunology in Yokohama. DCs subsequently present these fragments to killer T cells, which seek out and destroy other affected cells. Phagocytosed molecules travel within sealed membrane bubbles called endosomes, and new work from Udono and his colleagues has revealed insights into how these antigens are released into the cytosol prior to cross-presentation1.
Udono’s team focused on heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), a molecule that previous studies have linked to cross-presentation. HSP90 comes in two forms, á and â, which perform overlapping roles. Mice need at least one of these proteins to live. Udono and colleagues succeeded in generating healthy mice that exclusively lack HSP90á. They found that, although HSP90â appears to make some contribution, the loss of HSP90á had a striking effect on antigen processing. DCs isolated from these mice showed defects in their capacity for cross-presentation, and failed to activate killer T cells efficiently following exposure to ovalbumin, a model antigen.
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22.03.2018 | Universität Zürich
Researchers Discover New Anti-Cancer Protein
22.03.2018 | Universität Basel
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.
In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...
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