What we believe to see in one of the most famous optical illusions changes in a split second; and so does the path that the information takes in the brain.
Faces or cup? Due to the rapid reorganisation of networks in the brain, we perceive different elements of the image. Image: Demian Battaglia/MPI f. Dynamics and Self-organization
In a new theoretical study, scientists of the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, the Bernstein Center Göttingen and the German Primate Center now show how this is possible without changing the cellular links of the network. The direction of information flow changes, depending on the time pattern of communication between brain areas. This reorganisation can be triggered even by a slight stimulus, such as a scent or sound, at the right time.
The way how the different regions of the brain are connected with each other plays a significant role in information processing. This processing can be changed by assembly and disassembly of neuronal connections between brain areas. But such events are much too slow to explain rapid changes in perception. From experimental studies, it was known that the responsible actions must be at least two orders of magnitude faster. The Göttingen scientists now show for the first time that it is possible to change the information flow in a tightly interconnected network in a simple manner.
Many areas of the brain display a rhythmic nerve cell activity. “The interacting brain areas are like metronomes that tick at the same speed and in a distinct temporal pattern,” says the physicist and principal investigator Demian Battaglia. The researchers were now able to demonstrate that this temporal pattern determines information flow. “If one of the metronomes is affected, e.g., through an external stimulus, then it changes beat, ticking in an altered temporal pattern compared to the others. The other areas adapt to this new situation through self-organisation, and start playing a different drum beat as well. It is therefore sufficient to impact one of the areas in the network to completely reorganize its functioning, as we have shown in our model,” explains Battaglia.
The applied perturbation does not have to be particularly strong. “It is more important that the ‘kick’ occurs at exactly the right time of the rhythm,” says Battaglia. This might play a significant role for perception processes: “When viewing a picture, we are trained to recognize faces as quickly as possible – even if there aren't any,” points out the Göttingen researcher. “But if we smell a fragrance reminiscent of wine, we immediately see the cup in the picture. This allows us to quickly adjust to things that we did not expect by changing the focus of our attention.”
Next, the scientists want to test the model on networks with a more realistic anatomy. They also hope that the findings will inspire future experimental studies, as Battaglia says: “It would be fantastic if, in some years, certain brain areas could be stimulated in such a subtle and precise manner that the theoretically predicted effects can be measured by imaging methods.”
The Bernstein Center Göttingen is part of the National Bernstein Network Computational Neuroscience (NNCN) in Germany. The NNCN was established by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research with the aim of structurally interconnecting and developing German capacities in the new scientific discipline of computational neuroscience. The network is named after the German physiologist Julius Bernstein (1835–1917).Original publication:
Johannes Faber | idw
Funding of Collaborative Research Center developing nanomaterials for cancer immunotherapy extended
28.06.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Zeolite catalysts pave the road to decentral chemical processes Confined space increases reactivity
28.06.2017 | Technische Universität München
An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...
19.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
28.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
28.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
28.06.2017 | Health and Medicine