Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Good preparation is key – even for plant cells and symbiotic fungi

11.11.2011
Not only mineral oil and petroleum gas, also phosphorous is a scarce resource.

Phosphorous, this important and essential mineral, is part of our DNA and, therefore, irreplaceable. Many soils are already depleted for phosphorous and plants growing on them are only able to take up enough phosphorous by living in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi). This symbiosis is a non-synchronous process, which means that different cells in the root can show different phases of symbiotic interaction with the fungus. For this reason, the scientists used laser capture microdissection to excise single root cells and deciphered their specific gene activity.

When scientists are analysing the molecular composition of plant cells they usually assume that different cells from the same tissue are alike. In many cases, this assumption is true. The majority of cells from leaves, stems or roots show similar levels of gene expression and metabolic activity. It gets more complicated when plants undergo symbiosis, because interactions with the symbiotic partner may alter the cell’s metabolism. And even cells adjacent to colonised cells that have not yet come into direct contact with the fungus can show drastic changes in their gene expression levels.

The most prevalent plant symbiosis is that between root cells and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, called AM fungi. AM fungi make sure that plants can grow on nutrient-depleted soil – unnoticed by most people. These fungi outstretch their filamentary cells, called hyphae, far into the soil and are thereby able to take up more nutrients than plants can absorb with their roots. The fungus takes up mainly phosphate, but possibly also nitrate and metal ions like copper, zinc and iron and gives these willingly to the plant. In return, it is rewarded with sugars that plants produce via photosynthesis.

Interestingly, fungus and plant cell never really merge; they are constantly separated by membranes, the outer boundaries of the cells. To enable the relatively big sugar and phosphate molecules to pass through these membranes, the plant cells insert big protein complexes that resemble tunnels through which the molecules can freely travel from one cell to another. This was already known, and it was not astounding that the scientists around Franziska Krajinski found genes that encode for such transport proteins to be highly expressed in cells that are already colonised by the fungus. A more surprising discovery was, however, that even cells that are in close vicinity of the colonised cells seemed to be already reprogrammed. More than 800 genes showed enhanced activity exclusively in these cells. “The higher transcription rate of genes that are responsible for transport proteins, lipid acid metabolism and gene regulation does not seem to be a result of the colonisation by the fungus,” explains Nicole Gaude, first author of the study. “It is more likely that cells are preparing themselves for an imminent colonisation by the fungus.”

These very precise and specific results were obtained with the help of laser capture microdissection. In this method, a laser beam is used to excise individual cells from a tissue. At least 5000 cells were cut out by Gaude and her team; a time-consuming manual labour that even Sisyphus would have been proud of. But the time and effort were worth it. “We now know which genes are activated even before a symbiosis is physically established,” explains Gaude.

Understanding the symbiotic programme of plants could enable the use of AM fungi in agriculture and reduce the application of expensive, artificial fertilizer in the future.

Contact

Nicole Gaude/Franziska Krajinski
Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Tel. 0331/567 8355
Gaude@mpimp-golm.mpg.de
Krajinski@mpimp-golm.mpg.de
Claudia Steinert
Public Relations
Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Tel. 0331/567 8275
Steinert@mpimp-golm.mpg.de
http://www.mpimp-golm.mpg.de
Original Work
Nicole Gaude, Silvia Bortfeld, Nina Duensing, Marc Lohse, Franziska Krajinski
Arbuscule-containing and non-colonized cortical cells of mycorrhizal roots undergo a massive and specific reprogramming during arbuscular mycorrhizal development

The Plant Journal, Advanced Online Publication 06 October, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04810.x

Ursula Ross-Stitt | Max-Planck-Institut
Further information:
http://www-en.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel socio-ecological approach helps identifying suitable wolf habitats
17.02.2017 | Universität Zürich

nachricht New, ultra-flexible probes form reliable, scar-free integration with the brain
16.02.2017 | University of Texas at Austin

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Switched-on DNA

20.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Second cause of hidden hearing loss identified

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>