Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


New genomic marker for tuberculosis may help identify patients who will develop the disease

Study highlights how blood profiling techniques could change patient care

It may soon be possible to identify patients who will develop tuberculosis, as scientists have identified changes in the blood specific to the disease. These findings are from an international study published in the August 19 issue of Nature and conducted by doctors and researchers at Nationwide Children's Hospital using blood profiling techniques to understand infections.

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which usually attacks the lungs and can be fatal if not treated properly. Although TB is no longer a leading cause of death in the United States, it remains an epidemic in much of the world. One third of the world's total population is infected with the microbes that cause TB; however, most people infected with M. tuberculosis remain asymptomatic with latent TB. People with latent TB have a 10 percent lifetime risk of developing active TB, but current tests can not identify which individuals will develop the disease.

"Tools to diagnose infections like TB, bronchiolitis and pneumonia have been developed and are actively used to classify patients as being infected with specific pathogens, but we are still unable to predict how each person is going to react to the infection," said one of the study's authors Octavio Ramilo, MD, chief of Infectious Diseases at Nationwide Children's Hospital. "It's difficult to predict patient outcomes, and this is a real problem."

To combat this problem, Dr. Ramilo and Asuncion Mejias, MD, investigators at the Center for Vaccines and Immunity in The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, are using microarray technology to develop blood profiles in patients specific to infectious diseases.

"Each infectious agent, be it a virus or a bacterium, interacts with human immune cells in unique ways by triggering proteins on white blood cells," said Dr. Mejias. "We can identify patterns among the white blood cell's activated proteins and identify a unique 'signature' for each infectious agent."

Drs. Ramilo and Mejias' – also faculty members at The Ohio State University College of Medicine – research has shown that gene expression microarray technology can be used to help develop blood transcriptional signatures.

"This technology allows us to see the whole picture of infection using a single blood sample, which is a really powerful tool for the clinic," said Dr. Mejias.

It's this gene expression microarray technology that allowed an international group of investigators, of which Drs. Ramilo and Mejias are part of, to provide the first complete description of the blood transcriptional signature of TB.

The study examined and compared blood drawn from patients in London, England and Cape Town, South Africa who had active TB, latent TB or who did not have TB. The team developed genome-wide transcriptional profiles for each of the patients and discovered a distinct characteristic, or "signature," of the blood from patients with active TB. X-rays of patients with this signature were consistent with signs of active TB.

"The study shows for the first time that the transcriptional signature in blood correlates with extent of disease in active TB patients," said Dr. Ramilo. "It validates the idea that this transcriptional signature is an accurate marker of TB infection."

The team also found that a subset of latent TB patients had signatures similar to those in active TB patients.

"The signature of active TB, which was observed in 10 to 20 percent of latent TB patients, may identify those individuals who will develop disease, but longitudinal studies are needed to assess this," said Dr. Ramilo.

The transcriptional signature was diminished in active TB patients after two months and completely extinguished by 12 months after treatment.

"These findings suggest that the blood transcriptional signature of active TB patients could be used to monitor how well a patient's treatment is working," said Dr. Ramilo.

Dr. Mejias says that this study highlights the power that gene expression microarray technology could bring to the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, as the blood transcriptional signatures are not limited to TB. Currently, the infectious disease investigators at Nationwide Children's Hospital are developing transcriptional signatures using blood samples obtained from children with broncholitis and pneumonia and plan to correlate findings with clinical outcomes, similar to the recent TB study.

"It seems that we are developing a tool that can not only diagnose infectious diseases, but also indicate severity and eventually predict which patients are at risk for developing advanced symptoms. These capabilities are desperately needed in order to improve how patients recover from infections," said Dr. Ramilo.

Mary Ellen Peacock | EurekAlert!
Further information:

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht First time-lapse footage of cell activity during limb regeneration
25.10.2016 | eLife

nachricht Phenotype at the push of a button
25.10.2016 | Institut für Pflanzenbiochemie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Etching Microstructures with Lasers

Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.

This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...

Im Focus: Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves

Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Ice shelf vibrations cause unusual waves in Antarctic atmosphere

25.10.2016 | Earth Sciences

Fluorescent holography: Upending the world of biological imaging

25.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Etching Microstructures with Lasers

25.10.2016 | Process Engineering

More VideoLinks >>>