Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New genome sequence will aid study of important food, fuel crops

11.02.2010
A global initiative that includes key scientists from Oregon State University has successfully sequenced the genome of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon, which will serve as a model to speed research on improved varieties of wheat, oats and barley, as well as switchgrass, a crop of major interest for biofuel production.

The advance was announced today in the journal Nature.

The primary international repository for the Brachypodium genome sequence data, called “BrachyBase,” is situated at OSU, and helps scientists around the world make important advances for human nutrition and new energy sources.

Brachypodium is actually a wild annual grass plant, native to the Mediterranean and Middle East, with little agricultural importance and is of no major economic value itself. But it allows researchers to obtain genetic information for grasses much more easily than some of its related, but larger and more complex counterparts with much larger genomes – plants which are hugely important in world nutrition.

“Some plants are a geneticist’s nightmare,” said Todd Mockler, a principal investigator on this project and assistant professor in the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology. “Wheat, for instance, is an important crop, but it has an enormous and complex genome five times larger than a human.

“Brachypodium is just the opposite of that,” added Mockler, who is a member of OSU’s Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing. “It has one of the smallest known genomes among grasses, it’s easy to work with and it is physically small. We can grow 50,000 plants in a normal-sized laboratory and do larger experiments. The plants are easy to grow, easy to genetically manipulate, easy to study and have a short lifecycle.

“And what we learn from Brachypodium will be of critical value in work with other plants of agronomic importance.”

A team of 12 OSU researchers led the transcriptome and small RNA sequencing on this project, which involved scientists from around the world, in work supported by the Joint Genome Institute of the U.S. Department of Energy. Other parts of the initiative were supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the work conducted at OSU was also funded in part by the OSU Computational and Genome Biology Initiative and the Oregon State Agricultural Research Foundation.

“We are launching Brachypodium with one of the most comprehensive genome annotations of any species, ever,” Mockler said. “This is a point that took us a decade or more to reach with other plant species, and that’s a reflection of some extraordinary new DNA sequencing technology available at OSU and elsewhere. It gives scientists a chance to move quickly ahead with genetic advances.”

Development of new genomic technologies for plants like Brachypodium has been a major focus of scientists at OSU.

“What this work provides is a highly informative roadmap to explore and improve plants of great agricultural value, like wheat,” said James Carrington, director of the Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing, and a co-author of the study. “The quality of science that can be done with plants like Brachypodium is really exceptional.”

Much of the early funding support was from the Department of Energy, Mockler said, which wants to develop better feedstocks for production of cellulosic ethanol – essentially, fuel from non-food plant material, as opposed to food crops such as corn. It’s widely believed that a grass plant called switchgrass may work well for this, but it’s never been domesticated – the evolution of switchgrass as a crop is now at the stage that corn, for instance, was about 10,000 years ago, before generations of selective breeding produced improved crops. Genetic modification may be able to produce switchgrass that could grow taller, faster, and have cell walls that are easier to break down, or lead to plants that better resist drought or disease.

“Beyond that, however, there may also be opportunities to improve food crops,” Mockler said. “This is the first sequenced plant genome that is closely related to temperate cereals such as wheat and oats, which are important food crops around the world.”

The “cool season” cereal, forage and turf grasses, of which Brachypodium is a member, are part of the Pooideae subfamily, and the last of three important subfamilies of grasses to have one of their genomes sequenced. The other important grass groups that, combined, provide the bulk of human nutrition are Ehrhartoideae, which includes rice; and Panicoideae, with includes corn, sorghum, sugarcane and other grass crops. With more than 3,000 species, the Pooideae is the largest grass subfamily. Some early work has already been done, now that the Brachypodium genome has been sequenced, to compare the traits of these three major grass subfamilies.

Brachypodium seeds have been shared with more than 300 laboratories in 25 countries, and the genome information is now freely available to any researcher in the world.

The similarities in gene content and gene family structure between Brachypodium, rice and sorghum supports the value of Brachypodium as a functional genomics model for all grasses,” the researchers wrote in their study. “The Brachypodium genome sequence analysis reported here is therefore an important advance towards securing sustainable supplies of food, feed and fuel from new generations of grass crops.”

About the OSU College of Science: As one of the largest academic units at OSU, the College of Science has 14 departments and programs, 13 pre-professional programs, and provides the basic science courses essential to the education of every OSU student. Its faculty are international leaders in scientific research.

Todd Mockler | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.oregonstate.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
24.02.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>