Study authors, led by George Leikauf, Ph.D., professor of occupational and environmental health at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, and Holger Schulz, M.D., professor of medicine at the Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich, focused on a gene called superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3), previously shown to protect the lungs from the effects of asbestos and oxidative stress.
"People lose lung function as they age, so it's important to identify possible genetic targets that control healthy development of the lungs during childhood," said Dr. Leikauf.
Drs. Leikauf, Schulz and colleagues compared SOD3 expression levels in strains of mice with poor lung function to one with more efficient airways and lungs two times the size. As with people, the lungs of mice fully form as they mature to adulthood. The better-functioning strain maintained higher levels of SOD3 – levels in these mice were four times higher at the final stage of lung development. They also found the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, variations in DNA sequences, in SOD3 that were linked to lung function in mice.
The researchers went on to assess SOD3 mutations in children ages 9 to 11 by testing for SNPs linked to lung function. After analyzing DNA from 1,555 children in Munich and Dresden who were part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children, they discovered two common SNPs associated with poorer lung function. One of these SNPs likely alters the expression levels of SOD3. Lung function was tested with spirometry, which measures the amount and speed of exhaled air.
Previously, genetic variants in SOD3 have been associated with loss of lung function in COPD, which is mainly caused by cigarette smoking. "We know SOD3 protects the lung against injury caused by chemicals in cigarette smoke, and it could be a link between childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and poor lung development," said Dr. Leikaf. In the future it might be possible to identify at-risk children and to develop a medication that would foster optimal lung development, he added. The researchers also are exploring sex differences in SOD3 gene expression and lung development, and girls appear to be at greater risk than boys.
COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for more than 120,000 deaths annually and costing more than $30 billion per year. It is estimated that more than 16 million Americans have COPD.
The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the German Research Center for Environmental Health. In addition to Drs. Leikauf and Schulz, study co-authors include Koustav Ganguly, M.D., and Martina Schreiber, M.D., German Research Center for Environmental Health; Martin Depner, M.D., and Erika von Mutius, M.D., Ludwig Maximilian's University, Munich; Cheryl Fattman, M.D., Kifai Bein, M.D., Tim D. Oury, M.D., and Fei Gao, M.D., University of Pittsburgh; Scott C. Wesselkamper, M.D., and Michael T. Borchers, M.D., University of Cincinnati; Michael Kabesch, M.D., Hannover Medical School, Germany.
Clare Collins | EurekAlert!
Further reports about: > COPD > DNA > DNA sequence > Environmental Health > SNP > SOD3 > SOD3 gene expression > asbestos > chronic obstructive pulmonary disease > environmental risk > genetic variant > mutations > oxidative stress > poor lung function > single nucleotide polymorphisms > stunt lung development
Novel mechanisms of action discovered for the skin cancer medication Imiquimod
21.10.2016 | Technische Universität München
Second research flight into zero gravity
21.10.2016 | Universität Zürich
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences