Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Gene-Silencing Nanoparticles May Put End to Pesky Summer Pest

21.07.2010
Summer just wouldn't be complete without mosquitoes nipping at exposed skin. Or would it?

Research conducted by a Kansas State University team may help solve a problem that scientists and pest controllers have been itching to for years.

Kun Yan Zhu, professor of entomology, and teammates Xin Zhang, graduate student in entomology from China, and Jianzhen Zhang, a visiting scientist from Shanxi University, China, investigated using nanoparticles to deliver double-stranded ribonucleic acid, dsRNA -- a molecule capable of specifically triggering gene silencing -- into mosquito larvae through their food. By silencing particular genes, Zhu said the dsRNA may kill the developing mosquitoes or make them more susceptible to pesticides.

Gene silencing triggered by dsRNA or small interfering RNA, siRNA, is known as RNA interference, or RNAi.

"RNAi is a specific and effective approach for loss of function studies in virtually all eukaryotic organisms," Zhu said. Eukaryotic organisms have cells that contain a nucleus within which genetic material is carried and can therefore be manipulated. Almost all animals, plants and fungi are eukaryotes.

Once RNAi is triggered, it destroys the messenger RNA, or mRNA, of a particular gene. This prevents the translation of the gene into its product, silencing it. In the case of Zhu's research, RNAi was used to silence genes responsible for the production of chitin, the principle constituent of the exoskeleton in insects, crustaceans and arachnids.

"Since our RNAi is focused on chitin synthesis, the dsRNA that is delivered into the mosquito larvae can basically block the production of chitin," Zhu said.

Though the silencing is not yet 100 percent effective in their study, Zhu said it does leave the mosquito's body with less ability to combat insecticides, which must penetrate the mosquito's exoskeleton. If the gene, called chitin synthase, could be completely silenced, the mosquitoes may die without the use of pesticides because the chitin biosynthesis pathway would be blocked, Zhu said.

Zhu theorized using nanoparticles to deliver dsRNA to mosquito larvae might work because of the low success of manually injecting larvae with dsRNA. Mosquito larvae live in water but because dsRNA quickly dissipates in water, it can't be directly added to the larvae's food source. Zhu's group discovered that using nanoparticles assembled from dsRNA facilitates their ingestion by mosquito larvae because the nanoparticles don't dissolve in water. Zhu said the nanoparticles may also stabilize the dsRNA in water.

"Now insects will have a much greater likelihood of getting these nanoparticles containing the dsRNA into their gut through feeding," Zhu said.

Potentially, bait containing dsRNA-based nanoparticles could be developed for insect control, Zhu said.

"Because we can select specific genes for silencing, and the nanoparticles are formed from chitosan -- a virtually non-toxic and biodegradable polymer -- this pest control technology could target specific pest species while being environmentally friendly," he said.

Mosquitoes were chosen, Zhu said, because of the abundant research on them as human disease vectors. Other insects, though, can have their genes silenced. Zhu and his collaborators also have investigated gene silencing in the European corn borer and in grasshoppers, a major insect pest in China. Nanoparticles did not have to be used because grasshoppers and European corn borers are not aquatic. However, nanoparticle-based RNAi may facilitate the studies on the functions of new genes.

The team's paper, "Chitosan/double-stranded RNA nanoparticle-mediated RNA interference to silence chitin synthase genes through larval feeding in African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)," was recently accepted by the journal, Insect Molecular Biology. It has been published online in advance of print.

The research was partially funded by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.

Zhu's upcoming research will focus on gene silencing in agricultural pests.

Kun Yan Zhu, 785-532-4721, kzhu@k-state.edu

Kun Yan Zhu | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.k-state.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Cryo-electron microscopy achieves unprecedented resolution using new computational methods
24.03.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

nachricht How cheetahs stay fit and healthy
24.03.2017 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>