Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Gene-Silencing Nanoparticles May Put End to Pesky Summer Pest

21.07.2010
Summer just wouldn't be complete without mosquitoes nipping at exposed skin. Or would it?

Research conducted by a Kansas State University team may help solve a problem that scientists and pest controllers have been itching to for years.

Kun Yan Zhu, professor of entomology, and teammates Xin Zhang, graduate student in entomology from China, and Jianzhen Zhang, a visiting scientist from Shanxi University, China, investigated using nanoparticles to deliver double-stranded ribonucleic acid, dsRNA -- a molecule capable of specifically triggering gene silencing -- into mosquito larvae through their food. By silencing particular genes, Zhu said the dsRNA may kill the developing mosquitoes or make them more susceptible to pesticides.

Gene silencing triggered by dsRNA or small interfering RNA, siRNA, is known as RNA interference, or RNAi.

"RNAi is a specific and effective approach for loss of function studies in virtually all eukaryotic organisms," Zhu said. Eukaryotic organisms have cells that contain a nucleus within which genetic material is carried and can therefore be manipulated. Almost all animals, plants and fungi are eukaryotes.

Once RNAi is triggered, it destroys the messenger RNA, or mRNA, of a particular gene. This prevents the translation of the gene into its product, silencing it. In the case of Zhu's research, RNAi was used to silence genes responsible for the production of chitin, the principle constituent of the exoskeleton in insects, crustaceans and arachnids.

"Since our RNAi is focused on chitin synthesis, the dsRNA that is delivered into the mosquito larvae can basically block the production of chitin," Zhu said.

Though the silencing is not yet 100 percent effective in their study, Zhu said it does leave the mosquito's body with less ability to combat insecticides, which must penetrate the mosquito's exoskeleton. If the gene, called chitin synthase, could be completely silenced, the mosquitoes may die without the use of pesticides because the chitin biosynthesis pathway would be blocked, Zhu said.

Zhu theorized using nanoparticles to deliver dsRNA to mosquito larvae might work because of the low success of manually injecting larvae with dsRNA. Mosquito larvae live in water but because dsRNA quickly dissipates in water, it can't be directly added to the larvae's food source. Zhu's group discovered that using nanoparticles assembled from dsRNA facilitates their ingestion by mosquito larvae because the nanoparticles don't dissolve in water. Zhu said the nanoparticles may also stabilize the dsRNA in water.

"Now insects will have a much greater likelihood of getting these nanoparticles containing the dsRNA into their gut through feeding," Zhu said.

Potentially, bait containing dsRNA-based nanoparticles could be developed for insect control, Zhu said.

"Because we can select specific genes for silencing, and the nanoparticles are formed from chitosan -- a virtually non-toxic and biodegradable polymer -- this pest control technology could target specific pest species while being environmentally friendly," he said.

Mosquitoes were chosen, Zhu said, because of the abundant research on them as human disease vectors. Other insects, though, can have their genes silenced. Zhu and his collaborators also have investigated gene silencing in the European corn borer and in grasshoppers, a major insect pest in China. Nanoparticles did not have to be used because grasshoppers and European corn borers are not aquatic. However, nanoparticle-based RNAi may facilitate the studies on the functions of new genes.

The team's paper, "Chitosan/double-stranded RNA nanoparticle-mediated RNA interference to silence chitin synthase genes through larval feeding in African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)," was recently accepted by the journal, Insect Molecular Biology. It has been published online in advance of print.

The research was partially funded by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.

Zhu's upcoming research will focus on gene silencing in agricultural pests.

Kun Yan Zhu, 785-532-4721, kzhu@k-state.edu

Kun Yan Zhu | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.k-state.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Bolstering fat cells offers potential new leukemia treatment
17.10.2017 | McMaster University

nachricht Ocean atmosphere rife with microbes
17.10.2017 | King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Ocean atmosphere rife with microbes

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

Neutrons observe vitamin B6-dependent enzyme activity useful for drug development

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

NASA finds newly formed tropical storm lan over open waters

17.10.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>