Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Fruit Fly Model Organism: How a Developmental Gene Influences Sperm Formation

21.02.2014
Heidelberg researchers study basic regulatory mechanisms of stem cell differentiation

Heidelberg researchers have been delving into the basic regulatory mechanisms of stem cell differentiation. Using the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly as a model organism, the team led by Prof. Dr. Ingrid Lohmann at Heidelberg University's Centre for Organismal Studies was able to show how a special developmental gene from the Hox family influences germline stem cells. These cells are responsible for sperm formation.


Confocal image of a Drosophila testis that shows the localisation of the Abd-B Hox protein (green). Abd-B is essential for the positioning and function of the stem cell niche.

Ingrid Lohmann, COS, Heidelberg University

The scientists, working in the “Maintenance and Differentiation of Stem Cells in Development and Disease” Collaborative Research Centre (CRC 873), found that impairment of Hox gene function resulted in prematurely aged sperms.

As “immature” somatic cells, stem cells can mature into different types of cells, thus making them responsible for the development of all the tissues and organs in the body. They are also able to repair damaged adult cells. “Advancements in medical research have shown that stem cells can be used to treat certain diseases.

To fulfil the promise of stem cell therapy, it is important to discover the function of the respective stem cells and understand how they interact with their environment, that is, the surrounding cells and tissues,” explains Prof. Lohmann, who heads the Developmental Biology research group at the Centre for Organismal Studies (COS).

This microenvironment, which stabilises and regulates stem cell activity, is called a stem cell niche. The Heidelberg research team investigated the niches in the testis of the fruit fly. The germline stem cells there produce daughter cells that develop into mature sperms. “In our studies, we wanted to find out the nature, if any, of the relationship between germline stem cells and the gene Abd-B,” states Prof. Lohmann, who further explains that Abd-B belongs to a family of developmental genes referred to as Hox genes. These Hox genes control the activity of a multitude of other genes that are responsible for the early development of an organism.

According to the team’s research, the Abd-B gene is critical to niche function in the Drosophila testis. If Abd-B is mutated, the niche – and the stem cells located there – lose their position in the testis. This damages their function, which in turn causes the germline stem cells to divide incorrectly. In the fruit flies studied, this caused the formation of prematurely aged sperm. “Our new knowledge of the function of Abd-B helps us to better understand how these processes are regulated in higher organisms, including vertebrates,” explains Ingrid Lohmann.

In CRC 873, funded by the German Research Foundation, medical and biological scientists investigate the basic regulatory mechanisms that control the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. Different model organisms like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are used for their research, aimed at decoding the principles of stem cell control with the aim to also apply them to higher forms of life and eventually humans. The research results of Prof. Lohmann and her team were published in the journal “Developmental Cell”.

Original publication:
F. Papagiannouli, L. Schardt, J. Grajcarek, N. Ha, I. Lohmann: The Hox Gene Abd-B Controls Stem Cell Niche Function in the Drosophila Testis. Developmental Cell, Vol 28. Iss 2, 189-202 (27 January 2014), doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2013.12.016
Internet information:
Research group of Ingrid Lohmann:
http://www.cos.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/i.lohmann?l=_e
Collaborative Research Centre:
http://www.klinikum.uni-heidelberg.de/Sonderforschungsbereich.116852.0.html
Contact:
Prof. Dr. Ingrid Lohmann
Centre for Organismal Studies
Phone: +49 6221 54-51312
ingrid.lohmann@bioquant.uni-heidelberg.de
Communications and Marketing
Press Office, phone: +49 6221 54-2311
presse@rektorat.uni-heidelberg.de

Marietta Fuhrmann-Koch | idw
Further information:
http://www.uni-heidelberg.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria
23.05.2017 | Rice University

nachricht Discovery of an alga's 'dictionary of genes' could lead to advances in biofuels, medicine
23.05.2017 | University of California - Los Angeles

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

Im Focus: Bacteria harness the lotus effect to protect themselves

Biofilms: Researchers find the causes of water-repelling properties

Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

Innovation 4.0: Shaping a humane fourth industrial revolution

17.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists propose synestia, a new type of planetary object

23.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria

23.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Medical gamma-ray camera is now palm-sized

23.05.2017 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>