Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Fruit Fly Model Organism: How a Developmental Gene Influences Sperm Formation

21.02.2014
Heidelberg researchers study basic regulatory mechanisms of stem cell differentiation

Heidelberg researchers have been delving into the basic regulatory mechanisms of stem cell differentiation. Using the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly as a model organism, the team led by Prof. Dr. Ingrid Lohmann at Heidelberg University's Centre for Organismal Studies was able to show how a special developmental gene from the Hox family influences germline stem cells. These cells are responsible for sperm formation.


Confocal image of a Drosophila testis that shows the localisation of the Abd-B Hox protein (green). Abd-B is essential for the positioning and function of the stem cell niche.

Ingrid Lohmann, COS, Heidelberg University

The scientists, working in the “Maintenance and Differentiation of Stem Cells in Development and Disease” Collaborative Research Centre (CRC 873), found that impairment of Hox gene function resulted in prematurely aged sperms.

As “immature” somatic cells, stem cells can mature into different types of cells, thus making them responsible for the development of all the tissues and organs in the body. They are also able to repair damaged adult cells. “Advancements in medical research have shown that stem cells can be used to treat certain diseases.

To fulfil the promise of stem cell therapy, it is important to discover the function of the respective stem cells and understand how they interact with their environment, that is, the surrounding cells and tissues,” explains Prof. Lohmann, who heads the Developmental Biology research group at the Centre for Organismal Studies (COS).

This microenvironment, which stabilises and regulates stem cell activity, is called a stem cell niche. The Heidelberg research team investigated the niches in the testis of the fruit fly. The germline stem cells there produce daughter cells that develop into mature sperms. “In our studies, we wanted to find out the nature, if any, of the relationship between germline stem cells and the gene Abd-B,” states Prof. Lohmann, who further explains that Abd-B belongs to a family of developmental genes referred to as Hox genes. These Hox genes control the activity of a multitude of other genes that are responsible for the early development of an organism.

According to the team’s research, the Abd-B gene is critical to niche function in the Drosophila testis. If Abd-B is mutated, the niche – and the stem cells located there – lose their position in the testis. This damages their function, which in turn causes the germline stem cells to divide incorrectly. In the fruit flies studied, this caused the formation of prematurely aged sperm. “Our new knowledge of the function of Abd-B helps us to better understand how these processes are regulated in higher organisms, including vertebrates,” explains Ingrid Lohmann.

In CRC 873, funded by the German Research Foundation, medical and biological scientists investigate the basic regulatory mechanisms that control the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. Different model organisms like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are used for their research, aimed at decoding the principles of stem cell control with the aim to also apply them to higher forms of life and eventually humans. The research results of Prof. Lohmann and her team were published in the journal “Developmental Cell”.

Original publication:
F. Papagiannouli, L. Schardt, J. Grajcarek, N. Ha, I. Lohmann: The Hox Gene Abd-B Controls Stem Cell Niche Function in the Drosophila Testis. Developmental Cell, Vol 28. Iss 2, 189-202 (27 January 2014), doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2013.12.016
Internet information:
Research group of Ingrid Lohmann:
http://www.cos.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/i.lohmann?l=_e
Collaborative Research Centre:
http://www.klinikum.uni-heidelberg.de/Sonderforschungsbereich.116852.0.html
Contact:
Prof. Dr. Ingrid Lohmann
Centre for Organismal Studies
Phone: +49 6221 54-51312
ingrid.lohmann@bioquant.uni-heidelberg.de
Communications and Marketing
Press Office, phone: +49 6221 54-2311
presse@rektorat.uni-heidelberg.de

Marietta Fuhrmann-Koch | idw
Further information:
http://www.uni-heidelberg.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht More than just a mechanical barrier – epithelial cells actively combat the flu virus
04.05.2016 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

nachricht Discovery of a fundamental limit to the evolution of the genetic code
03.05.2016 | Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nuclear Pores Captured on Film

Using an ultra fast-scanning atomic force microscope, a team of researchers from the University of Basel has filmed “living” nuclear pore complexes at work for the first time. Nuclear pores are molecular machines that control the traffic entering or exiting the cell nucleus. In their article published in Nature Nanotechnology, the researchers explain how the passage of unwanted molecules is prevented by rapidly moving molecular “tentacles” inside the pore.

Using high-speed AFM, Roderick Lim, Argovia Professor at the Biozentrum and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute of the University of Basel, has not only directly...

Im Focus: 2+1 is Not Always 3 - In the microworld unity is not always strength

If a person pushes a broken-down car alone, there is a certain effect. If another person helps, the result is the sum of their efforts. If two micro-particles are pushing another microparticle, however, the resulting effect may not necessarily be the sum their efforts. A recent study published in Nature Communications, measured this odd effect that scientists call “many body.”

In the microscopic world, where the modern miniaturized machines at the new frontiers of technology operate, as long as we are in the presence of two...

Im Focus: Tiny microbots that can clean up water

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute Stuttgart have developed self-propelled tiny ‘microbots’ that can remove lead or organic pollution from contaminated water.

Working with colleagues in Barcelona and Singapore, Samuel Sánchez’s group used graphene oxide to make their microscale motors, which are able to adsorb lead...

Im Focus: ORNL researchers discover new state of water molecule

Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states.

In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory describe a new tunneling state of...

Im Focus: Bionic Lightweight Design researchers of the Alfred Wegener Institute at Hannover Messe 2016

Honeycomb structures as the basic building block for industrial applications presented using holo pyramid

Researchers of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) will introduce their latest developments in the field of bionic lightweight design at Hannover Messe from 25...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

The “AC21 International Forum 2016” is About to Begin

27.04.2016 | Event News

Soft switching combines efficiency and improved electro-magnetic compatibility

15.04.2016 | Event News

Grid-Supportive Buildings Give Boost to Renewable Energy Integration

12.04.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

New fabrication and thermo-optical tuning of whispering gallery microlasers

04.05.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Introducing the disposable laser

04.05.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

A new vortex identification method for 3-D complex flow

04.05.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>