Individuals of one and the same plant species often differ greatly in their ability to resist pathogens: While one rose succumbs to bacterial infection, its neighbor blissfully thrives. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Developmental Biology in Germany have tracked down an explanation for this common phenomenon.
Their conclusion: disease resistance can incur high costs. Especially resistant plants of mouse ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) produce fewer and small leaves, and have a competitive disadvantage in the absence of enemies. Whether it is better to invest into disease resistance or biomass is thus very much dependent on the unpredictable circumstances a plant may find itself in. Therefore both large, but vulnerable plants co-exist in nature with small, but well-protected ones (Nature, June 3, 2010).
In the course of evolution, plants invented many ways to defend themselves against enemies. Some produce smelly or bad-tasting ingredients, others develop thorns or have a particular effective immune response to viruses and bacteria. If selection pressure is sufficiently high, one would thus expect only those individuals to survive that are best protected. Pathogens, in turn, should have a difficult time. Everybody knows that this is not the case. Indeed, plants vary tremendously in their ability to defend themselves, and this is true not only for different species, but also for members of the same species.
The group of Detlef Weigel at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology has now tracked down a variant of the ACD6 gene, which functions as a universal weapon in the fight against predators. With it, the plants both produce much more of a chemical that is directly toxic to microbes and more signaling molecules important in immunity. These enable mouse ear cress plants to combat a wide range of enemies, from bacteria and fungi to insects such as aphids. However, not all varieties have this variant. While it occurs throughout the area where mouse ear cress grows, from North Africa to Scandinavia, and from Central Asia to Western Europe, at any given place it is found in only about 20 percent of individuals. This already suggests that this variant might also confer some disadvantages.
“We could show that this gene makes plants resistant against pathogens, but at the same time it slows down the production of leaves and limits the size of leaves, so that these plants are always smaller than those that do not have this variant,” said Detlef Weigel. “But as soon as they are being attacked, the plants with the special ACD6 variant have a leg up compared to plants with the standard version. On the down side, at places or in years where there are few enemies, they are penalized and lose out compared to the larger fellow plants.” Smaller size eventually leads to reduced number of seeds and hence to fewer progeny. The conclusion of Weigel: “Just as in human society, there is no free lunch in nature.”Scientists and institutes that participated in this study
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The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet
22.09.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
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Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
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Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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