Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Flying bears – Molecular genetics provides evidence for an unusual dispersal mode

25.02.2014
A genetic study of brown bears in Bulgarian mountain regions provided evidence for the existence of individuals of Carpathian origin. How did they get there? Natural dispersal is unlikely. Rather, the bears were brought in by air transport. Along with cooperation partners of Bulgarian and Romanian NGOs and the Frankfurt Zoological Society Scientists of the Senckenberg Conservation Genetics Section in Frankfurt, Germany have confirmed the legend that the former leader of the Romanian Communist Party, Nicolae Ceausescu once sent the bears to Bulgaria. The study has now been published in the journal Conservation Genetics.

The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is considered an endangered species across Europe. While the species is largely extinct in the western part of the continent, larger populations have persisted in the eastern part, including Russia, the Carpathians and the Balkan Peninsula.


Brown bear in Kormisosh enclosure

© Aleksandar Dutsov, Balkani Wildlife Society


Brown bear in Kormisosh enclosure

© Aleksandar Dutsov, Balkani Wildlife Society

“Unfortunately, we lack considerable knowledge about these few remaining viable bear populations, including basic data such as population size and connectivity“, says Dr. Carsten Nowak, wildlife geneticist at Senckenberg. In order to change this unsatisfying situation, leading bear experts from the Balkani Research Society sampled more than 200 scat, hair and tissue samples of the species across Bulgarian bear habitats. Individual DNA profiles generated at the DNA laboratories of Senckenberg and the LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre in Frankfurt (BiK-F) finally provided hard data on the population status in the country. During the analysis, however, PhD student Christiane Frosch revealed an unusual pattern: several individual profiles collected in three regions in the main mountain regions of the country, the Stara Planina Mountains and the Rhodopes, differed considerably from all the other bear profiles. Where did these bears come from and how did they get there?

The scientists finally found the place of origin of these „scientific problem bears“: Samples from the Carpathian mountains in Romania provided from bear conservationists of the local Milvus Group perfectly matched the unusual Bulgarian DNA profiles.These regions, however, lie several hundred kilometers apart from each other and the generally high genetic difference between the populations does not suggest high rates of exchange.

Although bears are good long-distance dispersers and could theoretically make it from Romania to Bulgaria by themselves, the scientists were skeptic. „We cannot exclude the possibility of natural migration, but geographic locations of the revealed samples and several other patterns make this scenario unlikely“, says Nowak.

Bear Hunting – a Dictator’s Hobby?

Intensive investigation and regional study finally brought a more reasonable explanation: during the era of socialism some Eastern European heads of government were passionate bear hunters. It is reported that the Romanian dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu (1918-1989), shot more than 1000 bears in his lifetime. The constant success of his bear hunting activities was guaranteed by numerous assistant hunters and game wardens, and by activities that targeted the boosting of the Romanian bear population, including raising bears in captivity.

Some of these bears were used for improving relationships with allied rulers. In Romania and Bulgaria people report that the large Carpathian bears were brought to Bulgarian enclosures be military planes and released in order to spice up the less impressive local bear population. Indeed, at least one of the places where translocated bears where kept, the Kormisosh enclosure in the Rhodopes, does still exist (see photo), as local investigations revealed. Indeed, several of the “alien” bear genotypes were found in the vicinity of this enclosure. 

More than two decades after the breakdown of socialism in Eastern Europe researchers from Germany, Bulgaria and Romania confirm a curious legend: aerial dispersal is not restricted to plants, insects, spiders, or birds. Occasionally, this might also involve bears, the heaviest land predators on earth. 

It should be noted that despite of intensive investigation, the researchers found no written documents about the case. Their study, now online in the journal “Conservation Genetics” is the first written document to certify it.

Publication

Nowak, C.; Domokos, C.; Dustov, A.; Frosch, C.: Molecular evidence for historic long-distance translocations of brown bears in the Balkan region; 2014, Conservation Genetics.
dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-014-0570-7

Contact

Dr. Carsten Nowak
Conservation Genetics Section
Senckenberg Field station Gelnhausen
Tel +49 (0) 6051-61954-3122
carsten.nowak@senckenberg.de

Press Office

Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung
Regina Bartel
Tel. +49 (0) 69- 7542 1434
regina.bartel@senckenberg.de

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.senckenberg.de/presse

Dr. Sören Dürr | Senckenberg

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

nachricht CWRU researchers find a chemical solution to shrink digital data storage
22.06.2017 | Case Western Reserve University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

Im Focus: Optoelectronic Inline Measurement – Accurate to the Nanometer

Germany counts high-precision manufacturing processes among its advantages as a location. It’s not just the aerospace and automotive industries that require almost waste-free, high-precision manufacturing to provide an efficient way of testing the shape and orientation tolerances of products. Since current inline measurement technology not yet provides the required accuracy, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is collaborating with four renowned industry partners in the INSPIRE project to develop inline sensors with a new accuracy class. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the project is scheduled to run until the end of 2019.

New Manufacturing Technologies for New Products

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation

22.06.2017 | Life Sciences

Plant inspiration could lead to flexible electronics

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

A rhodium-based catalyst for making organosilicon using less precious metal

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>