The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is considered an endangered species across Europe. While the species is largely extinct in the western part of the continent, larger populations have persisted in the eastern part, including Russia, the Carpathians and the Balkan Peninsula.
“Unfortunately, we lack considerable knowledge about these few remaining viable bear populations, including basic data such as population size and connectivity“, says Dr. Carsten Nowak, wildlife geneticist at Senckenberg. In order to change this unsatisfying situation, leading bear experts from the Balkani Research Society sampled more than 200 scat, hair and tissue samples of the species across Bulgarian bear habitats. Individual DNA profiles generated at the DNA laboratories of Senckenberg and the LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre in Frankfurt (BiK-F) finally provided hard data on the population status in the country. During the analysis, however, PhD student Christiane Frosch revealed an unusual pattern: several individual profiles collected in three regions in the main mountain regions of the country, the Stara Planina Mountains and the Rhodopes, differed considerably from all the other bear profiles. Where did these bears come from and how did they get there?
The scientists finally found the place of origin of these „scientific problem bears“: Samples from the Carpathian mountains in Romania provided from bear conservationists of the local Milvus Group perfectly matched the unusual Bulgarian DNA profiles.These regions, however, lie several hundred kilometers apart from each other and the generally high genetic difference between the populations does not suggest high rates of exchange.
Although bears are good long-distance dispersers and could theoretically make it from Romania to Bulgaria by themselves, the scientists were skeptic. „We cannot exclude the possibility of natural migration, but geographic locations of the revealed samples and several other patterns make this scenario unlikely“, says Nowak.
Bear Hunting – a Dictator’s Hobby?
Intensive investigation and regional study finally brought a more reasonable explanation: during the era of socialism some Eastern European heads of government were passionate bear hunters. It is reported that the Romanian dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu (1918-1989), shot more than 1000 bears in his lifetime. The constant success of his bear hunting activities was guaranteed by numerous assistant hunters and game wardens, and by activities that targeted the boosting of the Romanian bear population, including raising bears in captivity.
Some of these bears were used for improving relationships with allied rulers. In Romania and Bulgaria people report that the large Carpathian bears were brought to Bulgarian enclosures be military planes and released in order to spice up the less impressive local bear population. Indeed, at least one of the places where translocated bears where kept, the Kormisosh enclosure in the Rhodopes, does still exist (see photo), as local investigations revealed. Indeed, several of the “alien” bear genotypes were found in the vicinity of this enclosure.
More than two decades after the breakdown of socialism in Eastern Europe researchers from Germany, Bulgaria and Romania confirm a curious legend: aerial dispersal is not restricted to plants, insects, spiders, or birds. Occasionally, this might also involve bears, the heaviest land predators on earth.
It should be noted that despite of intensive investigation, the researchers found no written documents about the case. Their study, now online in the journal “Conservation Genetics” is the first written document to certify it.
Nowak, C.; Domokos, C.; Dustov, A.; Frosch, C.: Molecular evidence for historic long-distance translocations of brown bears in the Balkan region; 2014, Conservation Genetics.
Dr. Carsten Nowak
Conservation Genetics Section
Senckenberg Field station Gelnhausen
Tel +49 (0) 6051-61954-3122
Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung
Tel. +49 (0) 69- 7542 1434
Dr. Sören Dürr | Senckenberg
Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences