Maintaining fluid balance in the body is essential to survival, from the tiniest protozoa to the mightiest of mammals. By researching recent genomic data, Swiss researchers have found genetic evidence that links this intricate process to a turning point in evolution.
The study was led by Bernard Rossier, Professor Emeritus, University of Lausanne, along with colleagues Romain A. Studer, Emilie Person, and Marc Robinson-Rechavi. Dr. Rossier will discuss the team’s findings at the 7th International Symposium on Aldosterone and the ENaC/Degenerin Family of Ion Channels, sponsored by the American Physiological Society. Dr. Rossier’s presentation, “Evolution of ENaC and Na-K-ATPase as Limiting Factors of Aldosterone Action,” is based in part on the team’s recent article published in the journal Physiological Genomics.Timing Is Everything
Dr. Rossier and his team focused their analysis on eukaryotes—organisms whose cells contain complex structures within enclosed membranes¬—and sought to determine when and where on the eukaryotic family tree ENaC first appeared. When tracing the alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of ENaC back, the team found that the beta subunit appeared slightly before the emergence of Metazoans (multicellular animals with differentiated tissues) roughly 750 million years ago. “The alpha subunit is an old protein found everywhere, in any kind of organism, but the beta and gamma subunits appear much later in evolution,” said Dr. Rossier. “The appearance of the beta subunit is particularly significant because it is required for the function of the sodium pump. Without it, a functional sodium pump cannot be expressed at the cell surface. What is interesting is that it appeared right before the dividing point between unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms.”
The team also found homologs of ENaC in a single-celled organism, the Naegleria gruberi. Although N. gruberi is a eukaryote and shares a common ancestor with Metazoans, it is located on a different branch of the eukaryotic family tree, among the Excavates. At first glance it might make sense to assume that both Metazoans and Excavates got their ENaC from their common eukaryotic ancestor, but ENaC is absent in all other branches of the eukaryotic tree.
Dr. Rossier said that although it is possible that the genes for ENaC originated in the common ancestor of eukaryotes and were lost in all branches except the Metazoa and the Excavates, there is another possibility. There could have been a lateral transfer of genes between N. gruberi and a Metazoan ancestor, one that lived between the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes and the first Metazoans.
Whether a Metazoan transferred the genes for ENaC to N. gruberi or the other way around, Dr. Rossier is not sure. Either way, the fact that ENaC gene family appeared just before the emergence of Metazoans suggests it is somehow linked to the development of multi-celled organisms, he said.About the Conference
NOTE TO EDITORS: Dr. Rossier’s presentation, “Evolution of ENaC and Na-K-ATPase as Limiting Factors of Aldosterone Action,” is based in part on the team’s recent article published in the journal Physiological Genomics. To request an interview or a copy of the article, please contact Donna Krupa at 301.634.7209 or email@example.com.
Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function to create health or disease. The American Physiological Society has been an integral part of the discovery process since it was established in 1887. To keep up with the science, follow @Phyziochick on Twitter.
Donna Krupa | Newswise Science News
Closing the carbon loop
08.12.2016 | University of Pittsburgh
Newly discovered bacteria-binding protein in the intestine
08.12.2016 | University of Gothenburg
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
08.12.2016 | Life Sciences
08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences