A team of scientists, led by principal investigator David D. Schlaepfer, PhD, professor in the Department of Reproductive Medicine at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that small molecule inhibitors to a protein called focal adhesion kinase (FAK) selectively prevent the growth of ovarian cancer cells as tumor spheroids.
The findings come in a pair of studies published online this week in the journals Gynecologic Oncology and Molecular Cancer Therapeutics.
Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of female cancer death in the United States. On average, more than 21,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year and 14,270 die. Many women achieve remission, but cancer recurrence rates exceed 75 percent, prompting the need for new treatments.
"Ovarian cancer spreads within a women's peritoneal space through a unique mechanism that involves the survival of small clusters of tumor cells termed spheroids," said Schlaepfer. "Our studies show that FAK signaling functions at the center of a tumor cell survival signaling network."
In the first study, published in Gynecologic Oncology, first author Nina Shah, MD, a gynecological oncology fellow in the Department of Reproductive Medicine, found that ovarian tumor cells with low levels of a tumor suppressor protein, called merlin, displayed heightened sensitivity to FAK inhibitor growth cessation.
"With FAK inhibitor clinical trials already testing a similar linkage in mesothelioma (a rare cancer that affects the protective lining of many internal organs), our results support the hypothesis that protein biomarkers such as merlin may identify those patients who may best respond to FAK inhibitor therapy," said Schlaepfer.
In the second study in Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, first author Isabelle Tancioni PhD, an assistant project scientist at UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center discovered that a network of signals generated by osteopontin – a beta-5 integrin receptor used in cell-to-cell signaling – and FAK control ovarian cancer spheroid growth.
High levels of beta-5 integrin and FAK expression are associated with a poor prognosis for some ovarian cancer patients. "Thus, high levels of beta-5 integrin may serve as a novel biomarker for ovarian carcinoma cells that possess active FAK signaling," said Schlaepfer.
Schlaepfer noted that tumor recurrence and metastasis are responsible for the majority of ovarian cancer-related deaths and said the new findings support ongoing clinical trials of FAK inhibitors as new agents in the fight to prevent ovarian cancer progression.
Co-authors include Sean Uryu, Florian J. Sulzmaier, Christine Lawson, Christine Jean, Xiao Lei Chen, Kristy K. Ward and Nichol L.G. Miller, UCSD Moores Cancer Center; and Denise C. Connolly, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA.
Funding for this research came, in part, from the National Institutes of Health (grant CA102310) and the non-profit Nine Girls Ask?
Scott LaFee | Eurek Alert!
Chains of nanogold – forged with atomic precision
23.09.2016 | Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland)
Self-assembled nanostructures hit their target
23.09.2016 | King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.
In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...
Every three years, the plastics industry gathers at K, the international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will also be attending again and presenting many innovative technologies, such as for joining plastics and metals using ultrashort pulse lasers. From October 19 to 26, you can find the Fraunhofer ILT at the joint Fraunhofer booth SC01 in Hall 7.
K is the world’s largest trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. As in previous years, the organizers are expecting 3,000 exhibitors and more than...
23.09.2016 | Event News
20.09.2016 | Event News
16.09.2016 | Event News
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences
23.09.2016 | Health and Medicine
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences