A transcription factor known to drive the formation of fibroblasts during development also promotes their ability to invade and remodel surrounding tissues, report Rowe et al. in the February 9, 2009 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology.
The conversion of epithelial cells into fibroblast-like mesenchymal cells is a critical event in both normal development and cancer. The transcription factor Snail1 induces this conversion (known as epithelial–mesenchymal transition, or EMT) by repressing the expression of epithelial-specific genes. Little was known about Snail1's role after EMT, although the transcription factor is up-regulated in mesenchymal tissue surrounding tumors and wounds.
Because Snail1 expression is thought to be required for maintenance of the mesenchymal phenotype in cancer, Rowe et al. were surprised to see that normal fibroblasts retained many mesenchymal characteristics when Snail1 was removed. The authors did find, however, that many genes important for cell motility, such as actin-binding proteins and matrix metalloproteinases, were expressed at lower levels in fibroblasts lacking Snail1.
Cells invade tissues by sending out actin-rich protrusions called invadopodia that contain proteolytic enzymes that degrade the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Fibroblasts without Snail1 formed fewer invadopodia and were less able to degrade the ECM. Rowe et al. transplanted the Snail1-deficient fibroblasts into chick embryos and found that they were completely unable to penetrate the basement membrane and the complex mix of ECM proteins beneath. Moreover, unlike wild-type fibroblasts, Snail1-deficient cells didn't stimulate the ingrowth of new blood vessels—another key function of fibroblasts during wound healing and tissue remodeling.
The team thinks that in addition to its role in EMT, Snail1 also acts as a master regulator of fibroblast function. In cancer cells, says author Grant Rowe, sustained Snail1 expression may not only cause a loss of epithelial markers but also promote tumor aggression by stimulating tissue invasion and angiogenesis.
Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery
20.01.2017 | GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Seeking structure with metagenome sequences
20.01.2017 | DOE/Joint Genome Institute
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
20.01.2017 | Awards Funding
20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.01.2017 | Life Sciences