A constellation of defective proteins suspected in causing a malfunction in the body’s ability to repair its own DNA could be the link scientists need to prove a new class of drugs will be effective in treating a broad range of ovarian cancer patients, an Oregon Health & Science University Knight Cancer Institute study found.
These research results, published this week in PLoS ONE, have prompted additional exploration into whether the patient population included in clinical trials for drugs that target the enzyme poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) should be expanded. Several forms of cancer are more dependent on PARP for their growth than regular cells, which means that targeting these enzymes when they go haywire is a potentially effective way to treat ovarian cancer. Currently PARP inhibitors are being tested with patients who have two types of malfunctioning proteins, BRCA1 or BRCA2. But, the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute study of additional proteins, beyond BRCA proteins, suggests that they too are playing a role in driving ovarian cancer.
Tapping into the potential of PARP inhibitors could change the dynamics of ovarian cancer treatment. There has not been a substantial increase in treatment options for ovarian cancer in the past two decades, said Tanja Pejovic, M.D., Ph.D., gynecologic oncologist at the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute. Pejovic, who led the study of these additional defective proteins, added that the results provide evidence that further research into the role of multiple proteins is warranted.
Only about 10 to 15 percent of women with ovarian cancer have BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 mutations. Pejovic’s study of 186 patients with nonhereditary cancer found that 41 percent who had an early recurrence of the disease also had abnormal levels of the other proteins tracked. In contrast, only 19.5 percent of patients who hadn’t yet had a recurrence of the disease in three years had abnormal levels of these proteins.
“If we are able to identify the proteins that differentiate these patients at risk for early recurrence, this would open up a new direction in ovarian cancer treatment,” Pejovic said.
The study — which was supported by the Sherie Hildreth Ovarian Cancer (SHOC) Foundation — focused on proteins that are supposed to assist cells in repairing harmful breaks in DNA strands, a process called homologous recombination (HR). The malfunctioning of HR is not well understood in ovarian cancers where there is no family history of the disease. However, there is evidence that these proteins influence a patient’s ability to respond to drugs and their survival rates after treatment.
Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer and the most common cause of death among women with a gynecologic cancer. About 21,000 ovarian cancer cases are diagnosed annually and about 14,000 deaths occur each year from the disease.
The OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, which helped pioneer the field of personalized cancer medicine, is committed to research that identifies the specific mutations driving each individual patient’s cancer. Other researchers at the Knight Cancer Institute who contributed to the study are: Weiya Z. Wysham, M.D.; Hong Li, M.S., M.D.; Laura Hays, Ph.D.; Jay Wright; Nupur Pande, Ph.D.; and Maureen Hoatlin, Ph.D.
About the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute
With the latest treatments, technologies, hundreds of research studies and approximately 400 clinical trials, the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute is the only National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Center between Sacramento and Seattle — an honor earned only by the nation's top cancer centers. The honor is shared among the more than 650 doctors, nurses, scientists and staff who work together at the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute to reduce the impact of cancer. For more information visit www.ohsuhealth.com/cancer or www.facebook.com/OHSUKnight.About OHSU
Elisa Williams | EurekAlert!
New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
24.02.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
24.02.2017 | Life Sciences
24.02.2017 | Life Sciences
24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News