In nature, how do host species survive parasite attacks? This has not been well understood, until now. A new mathematical model shows that when a host and its parasite each have multiple traits governing their interaction, the host has a unique evolutionary advantage that helps it survive.
The results are important because they might help explain how humans as well as plants and animals evolve to withstand parasite onslaught.
The research, reported in the March 4 online edition of Nature, was supported by the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS) and the National Science Foundation. The paper was co-authored by Tucker Gilman, a postdoctoral fellow at NIMBioS; Scott Nuismer, an associate professor of biology at the University of Idaho, and Tony Jhwueng, a past postdoctoral fellow at NIMBioS.
Evolutionary theory suggests that parasites and pathogens should evolve more rapidly than their hosts because they tend to have shorter generation times and often experience strong selection. But this creates a paradox: How can hosts, or "victim species," survive and even thrive despite continuous onslaught from more rapidly evolving parasitic enemies?
"In order to investigate the influence of the number of traits on coevolution, we used quantitative genetics and individual-based simulations to analyze a model of a victim-exploiter system," Gilman said. We were able to show that when multiple traits, not just a single trait, govern how the hosts and parasites interact, victims can gain the upper hand in the evolutionary arms race."
In nature, interactions between species are often influenced by multiple traits. For example, the resistance of wild parsnip to webworm attack depends on when the parsnip blooms and on concentrations of certain chemical compounds with insecticidal properties found in the plant. Similarly, teleost fish, such as tuna and halibut, have multiple defensive traits such as mucosal barriers and biocidal secretions that parasites must overcome in order to successfully infect the host.
"While the study focuses on host-parasite systems," Gilman said, "the results are general to any victim-exploiter pair. For example, in a predator-prey system, the predator has to first find, then capture, and finally subdue its victims, and a victim can deploy defensive traits at each stage of the attack."
Having multiple attack and defensive mechanisms may help prey species to evolve and maintain low interaction rates with their predators, according to the paper. In addition, the finding suggests that coevolution of multiple traits may help plants to limit the damage they receive from herbivores, and so may help to explain why the world is green.
Citation: Gilman RT, Nusimer SL, Dwueng D-C. 2012. Coevolution in multidimensional trait space favors escape from parasites and pathogens.
The National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS) brings together researchers from around the world to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries to investigate solutions to basic and applied problems in the life sciences. NIMBioS is sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture with additional support from The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
Catherine Crawley | EurekAlert!
Cnidarians remotely control bacteria
21.09.2017 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Immune cells may heal bleeding brain after strokes
21.09.2017 | NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.
MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
21.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.09.2017 | Life Sciences
21.09.2017 | Health and Medicine